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The Preservation and Resurrection of the Dead
by Kenneth W. Behrendt
It is a common observation that all living systems are subject to the same fate: they grow and mature, reproduce and nurture, and, sadly, inevitably begin to display a creeping deterioration. There are notable changes that take place in the internal organs of living creatures that reduce the efficiency of these organs and, in total, contribute to the general decline in the organism's functioning. In the case of human beings, they simply become frail and senescent. For the average person, the "three score and ten" rule holds true and between the ages of 70 and 80, there is an approximate 50% probability that a person will die. A few years after the death of a person, all that is left are a few bones and some dust. By then his offspring are usually past their reproductive years and their children are then reaching their reproductive phase.
Exactly why living systems age and die is still somewhat of a mystery and there are currently about a half dozen theories to account for this phenomenon.
One approach postulates that the longevity of an organism is controlled by only a few critical genes. When these genes are "switched on" the organism continually heals and renews itself to remain in a state of vibrant mature health. When these genes "switch off", however, the organism begins to deteriorate and accumulate nagging health problems until a critcal failure takes place. Exactly why these critical genes would switch off is still nearly a complete mystery.
Another theory claims that aging is really due to an inflamatory process that begins at the cellular level. This model states that the lipid rich outer membrane of each cell becomes clogged with debris that interferes with the active transport of materials through the cell membrane. That is, the complex structure of microscopic "channels" in the membrane no longer efficiently allows the movement of various molecules into and out of the cell's inner protoplasmic body. The cell then is simultaneously starved for nutrients while being internally poisoned with its own metabolic wastes. The result is a cell that can not perform its normal functions properly and which, eventually, dies off prematurely or is not able to accurately replicate itself.
However, perhaps the best overall theory to explain aging, which also accounts for the above approaches, is that it is simply due to the accumulated damaged caused by "free radicals" to the cells of an organism. Free radicals are formed during NORMAL metabolic processes when the chemical bonds which hold neighboring atoms together in a molecule break apart in such a way that each atom then possesses one of the two electrons that normally form the bond between the atoms. This is a very unstable subatomic configuration because, for greatest stability (or lowest energy), it is best that all of the electrons in an atom be present in PAIRS.
As the free radical fragments of the original molecule separate, they will each have an unpaired electron on one of their atoms that will be able to pull an electron away from an atom in an organism's cell and, thereby, chemically bond to that cell's atom. Thus, free radicals act like sticky fragments that can bind to cell membranes and begin blocking the microscopic channels in the outer cell walls. Inside the cell they have the effect of sand poured into a fine Swiss watch as they interfere with the smooth functioning of the cell's internal machinery. Free radicals can even make their way right down into the cell's nucleus to begin damaging the cell's genetic material. Damaged DNA will then produce structurally altered proteins in the cell's protoplasm that do not work as efficiently as they should or may not work at all!
Over time, the accumulated damage done to an organism's cells by free radicals will prove fatal. This effect can, to a certain extent, be delayed if the organism is supplied with a diet that is high in "anti-oxidants". These are various vitamins (such as vitamins A, C, D, and E) and minerals (such as selenium and zinc) which have the power to "arrest" free radicals which simply means that they can bind to them in the bodily fluids of an organism and form harmless compounds that can then be excreted from its body. In effect, the anti-oxidants neutralize the free radicals before they can damage cellular structures.
With the free radical theory in mind, one might conclude that the secret of immortality would be to simply consume a diet high in anti-oxidants. This method is somewhat effective because when used on laboratory animals in experiments during the 1960's it was shown to be able to extend the average lifespan of an animal by about 30%. For a human being who might ordinarily die at the age of 70 years, a diet rich in antioxidants might be able to extend his lifespan to about 90 years. Unfortunately, anti-oxidants, even when taken in high concentrations via supplementation, do not allow indefinite lifespan extension because they do not completely stop free radical damage to a person's bodily cells.
There are also other tricks for extending the lifespan of an organism.
For example, it has been known for several decades that caloric restriction will extend lifespan. Again, this makes sense in light of the free radical damage theory of aging. With less calories, the metabolism of an organism slows down and LESS free radicals are produced during normal metabolic processes. Less free radical damage is done per year and it then takes longer to accumulate a fatal amount of damage in the organism's cells.
Another life extension method currently being pursued in several laboratories around the world utilizes a biochemical approach. Since there only seem to be a relatively few longevity genes that are switched off to cause aging, perhaps it will be possible to artificially switch them back on again to extend an organism's lifespan for a while until these critical genes naturally switch off again and then again need to be artifically switched back on. This process might be achieved chemically or electrically and would allow immortality to be achieved via a series of genetic "tune ups". If one or some of the longevity genes themselves were damaged, then, perhaps, the latest gene splicing technology could be used to replace the defective gene with an undamaged one.
Some specialists in the area of life extension research claim that within the next decade or so that it will be possible to use such genetic manipulation to easily extend the current human lifespan up to about 150 years. So far, however, experiments with lower order animals have only been very partially successful and only produced lifespan extensions in the range of a few tens of percent...hardly more than can be achieved with an anti-oxidant rich diet or caloric restriction.
Even with all of the PRESENTLY available techniques and optimistic predictions, this writer doubts if it will ever be possible to extend the average person's lifespan further than about 120 years. This lifespan limit is mentioned in the Bible's book of Genesis and seems to be a natural limit that is observed, even today, in Earth's oldest living humans.
While physical immortality is not realistic today, that does not necessarily mean that it might not be possible, say, a century of two from now. So, in the remainder of this article, let us consider what method could be used TODAY to allow one seeking immortality to be in condition to receive that immortality several centuries from now. Since, unfortunately, such a person will most likely have to die, we must initially focus on what the best method for preserving his body will be. Finally, a very speculative prediction of just how that person's body might be reanimated or resurrected centuries from now will be given along with a suggestion of how an indefinite lifespan might be thereafter maintained.
Let me begin by discussing the topic of "cryogenic suspension". I first heard of this process during the 1960's when I read about certain rare accidents wherein individuals had been suddenly chilled, usually by immersion in water that was near its freezing point. The person would go into a state of hypothermic shock during which he would loss consciousness, stop breathing, and have no detectable pulse. A few victims of these accidents were in this state for several HOURS and, later, upon being warmed and given cardiac pulmonary resuscitation, managed to make close to a full recovery! The reason, of course, is that once a person's core body temperature is depressed by more than about ten degrees Fahrenheit, the metabolic processes in his internal organs, especially the brain, slow to a crawl so that even the small amount of oxygen still carried by his red blood cells is sufficient to maintain the life of those organs.
This type of cryogenic suspension is certainly a valid and useful one and has and is being used in certain forms of surgery wherein the patient's brain must be protected during a brief period of oxygen deprivation and for organ transplantions when a harvested organ must be protected from damage during transport from one hospital to another. While it is true that the normal aging process is greatly slowed during the time period that a person's body temperature is depressed either naturally or artificially, it also true that as the suspension period begins to go beyond only a few hours, the probability of a successful resuscitation begins to decline because, eventually, his barely metabolically active internal organs will deplete the little oxygen still present in his blood. At the moment, this technique can not allow a human being to survive for the several centuries that may be needed before it will be possible to technologically overcome death and achieve immortality.
Since the main problem with the above described form of cryogenic suspension is that it does not completely stop the metabolism of a person's body, one is tempted to try lowering the temperature even further. When the temperature of a person's tissues finally drops below 32° Fahrenheit, the fluids in and surrounding the cells in the tissues will freeze solid and most ordinary metabolic processes will cease. However, even at this low temperature some toxin generating metabolic processes continue at a very slow rate and it is still possible for various molds and bacteria to destroy tissues. Ideally, to finally put a halt to all chemical activity, one must lower the temperature of the cells to the lowest possible limit which would be near absolute zero which is about -459.69° Farhenheit.
To maintain a human body at this very low temperature requires special equipment and during the 1960's there emerged a variety of "cryogenic societies" which, for a fee, would transport the body of one of their recently deceased members to their special facility, carefully prepare the corpse, and then place it into a large insulated cylinder for storage. At the bottom of this cylinder a quantity of liquid nitrogen would be pumped in and, as it evaporated, its vapors would rise up to the top portion of the cylinder and chill the member's remains down to a temperature only a few tens of degrees above absolute zero. For an investment that would be in the tens of thousands of dollars, the frozen status of the member's body would be perpetually monitored and perserved for no matter how long it took for medical science to figure out how to successfully thaw the member out, resuscitate him, and, finally, rejuvenate him to an immortal life. These societies, of course, could make no quarantee of any of this actually taking place. At best, they could only offer some faint ray of hope against the grim reality of inevitable and irreversible death.
The major problem that makes this form of preservation of the dead virtually useless is the fact that much of the human body is composed of a rather unique solvent known as water. Water, because of a net internal electrical charge separation within its molecules, is said to be a "polar" solvent which, upon freezing, experiences an orderly alignment of its polar molecules that causes them to form splintery crystals which occupy more space than the liquid water from which they formed. As the tissues of an organism are cooled to the freezing point of liquid water, microscopic ice crystals will begin to form WITHIN the cells tissues which will very quickly destroy the delicate structures there. This damage is similar to the "freezer burn" that happens to meats that are deep frozen. Later, if the cells are thawed out and warmed to their living temperature, they will not be able to resume their normal metabolic activity and will quickly putrefy.
In the hope of overcoming this problem, cryogenic societies usually drain the blood from the member's corpse and perfuse the body with a liquid chemical called ethylene glycol. This subtance is used to make automobile anti-freeze coolant because it does not freeze solid to form crystals. By saturating the member's body fluids with ethylene glycol, it is hoped that enough of it will permeate the person's individual cells so that as they are frozen down to liquid nitrogen temperatures, no destructive ice crystals will form inside of individual cells. Unfortunately, there seem to be many fine structures or "organelles" within cells into which the ethylene glychol does not efficiently penetrate and the water that will crystallize in these upon freezing will be sufficient to destroy the delicate metabolic machinery of the the cell.
Several decades ago, this writer recalls reading a story in the newspapers about a cryogenic society in the western part of the United States that for some reason allowed the liquid nitrogen reservoirs in their members' cryogenic chambers to evaporate away. The temperatures of the bodies then slowly edged up toward room temperature and when the remains were finally examined, they had all turned into a kind of soupy mixture of damaged cell membranes. I do not remember if these remains were refrozen or simply buried or cremated. The point of this tragic story, however, is that cryogenic preservation of human beings is not a viable alternative for those seeking eventual resurrection and immortality.
From studying this matter for some time, I am now convinced that the best way to preserve human bodies is via extreme DEHYDRATION. Once all of the water is removed from a corpse, it shrivels down to a skeleton that appears to be wrapped in a wrinkled layer of skin and only weighs about 20% of its normal hydrated weight. Contrary to what some might believe, the skin and internal organs do not disintegrate into a fine powder that can blow away like so much dust, but, rather, these tissues remain slightly flexible due to the high concentrations of phospholipids found in individual cells. Once dessicated, human tissues become immune to the actions of viruses, bacteria, and molds and can, in theory, be perfectly preserved indefinitely so long as they can be kept from rehydrating.
This principle was known to the ancient Egyptians many thousands of years ago when they discovered the bodies of soldiers who had died during battles and had been burried in the sands of the battlefield. Perhaps several decades or even centuries later, the bodies might be uncovered as the desert sands were shifted around by the winds. These discovered bodies were always seen to be in a near perfect state of preservation. Soon the concept was incorporated into the Egyptian religious system and a way was sought be artificially preserve the bodies of the dead so that their souls could have continual existence in a hoped for afterlife. The Egyptian royalty was particularly interested in having their bodies preserved and had the wealth necessary to pursue this goal. While burial in warm, dry sand was initially used for preservation by the early Egyptians, the later use of damper burial chambers required that they find a better method of keeping moisture from reentering the body of the deceased.
To achieve a better preservation of a human body, the Egyptians developed the process of mummification. This was an elaborate and expensive procedure during which the deceased's internal organs would be removed and then, along with the then eviserated cadaver, would be covered in a pile of a natural substance called "natron". This was a mixture of sodium bicarboate (baking soda) and a trace of sodium chloride (salt) that the Egyptians obtained from dried lake beds and mud flats about a 100 miles north of Cairo. Because of its highly hydroscopic properties, natron would, after about five weeks or so, eventually draw all of the moisture out of the various body parts.
Once the deceased's tissues had been completely dehydrated, a new problem then presented itself: some means had to be provided to keep and moisture in the surrounding air from reentering the body parts again. To achieve this the Eqyptians would coat the eviserated body with a moisture proof waxy resin that was obtained from a plant. The Persian word for this waxy resin and the plant it was derived from was "mum" and it is the origin of the word "mummy" which is what the perserved body is called. Finally, the coated body would be wrapped in a strip of linen that might actually be over a mile in length! The body's dehydrated internal organs would be placed in sealed jars and kept near the mummy.
The Egyptians were not looking forward to any sort of physical resurrection to this world via their elaborate preservation methods. Rather, they believed that the immortal existence of their souls in an afterlife would only be assured so long as their preserved physical remains were kept intact in this world. To try to guarantee this, the Pharoahs of ancient Egypt spent huge sums of money having the various pyramids constructed.
Although the Eqyptian mummification process does preserve one's remains, it is not the ideal way to do so if one is seeking a future physical reanimation. For example, to remove the corpse's brain, they would insert a metal instrument into its nose, break through the thin bone at the top of the nasal cavity, and then scoop the brain out a little bit at a time. With the destruction of the person's brain there is no hope of a future resurrection. The additional removal of the internal organs to facilitate the dehydration process also introduces complications that would make future reanimation difficult or impossible.
However, the concept of extreme dehydration is certainly valid and is, I believe, the preferred mode of preservation for one seeking a future reanimation. I believe that the dehydration must be performed on the entire body and done in such a way as to do as little damage at the cellular level as possible. Currently, the most rapid method for dehydrating a dead body is a process known as "freeze drying". In this process the body is chilled until its internal fluids freeze solid. It is then placed in a chamber from which the air can be evacuated. As the air pressure inside of the chamber approaches zero pounds per square inch, the solid ice crystals that formed inside of the corpse will begin to "sublimate" which means that they will go directly from the solid to gaseous phase without melting first. The body's water supply, as vapor, will rapidly leave the corpse and tend to increase the atmospheric pressure inside of the vacuum chamber which will then require that the vacuum pump attached to it be kept running to maintain the vacuum in the chamber.
This method has the power to completely remove all of the moisture from a corpse without the need to open the cadaver or remove any of its wet internal organs. Freeze drying has been used in the last several decades as a way of preserving the bodies of deceased pets for those owners who wish to keep the animal's remains at home without having to worry about them decaying. I think that I heard of one case where it was used to preserve the body of a young girl whose remains were kept at home in a glass casket by her parents. The process is currently limited to small bodies such as those of pets or children because of the limited size of the vacuum chambers available. This size restraint could be eliminated in the future should the process gain in popularity as an alternative to conventional embalming in which the body is perfused with an aqueous solution containing formaldehyde to prevent decay.
Another method for dehydrating dead bodies is similar to the one that is employed in "smoke houses" when large pieces of meat are to be dehyrated to preserve them when refrigeration is not available to retard spoilage. This method involves exposing the body to warm, dry air which heats the cadaver and eventually draws out all of the moisture from it. The results are, however, not as aesthetically pleasing as those obtained via freeze drying. While freeze drying leaves the cadaver's dehydrated tissues looking plump and full, hot air moisture extraction tends to cause the tissues of the body to shrivel and shrink around the inner supporting skeletal structure. A cadaver preserved via hot air moisture extraction will look like a stick figure covered with deeply wrinkled, flesh colored rubber.
There is also a group of related ambient temperature methods of dehyration that are similar to the natural process that first attracted the attention of the ancient Egyptians.
For example, the body could actually be buried in warm, dry sand so that its moisture content would slowly, over the course of several days, be removed. Alternatively, the cadaver could be placed in an airtight chamber which also contained a highly hydroscopic dessicant material such as powdered calcium choride crystals. Over the course of several days, if sufficient dessicant is provided, all of the moisture in the corpse could be removed. After several days the dessicant might have to be replaced or dehyrated by heating and then returned to the chamber if the material became saturated before the body was completely dry. Finally, another possible ambient temperature method might involve placing the corpse into a chamber which contained a powerful room dehumidifier. This device is just a standard air conditioner which is placed completely inside of the chamber with the corpse. It both cools and heats the air inside the chamber so that there is no net temperature change, yet its evaporator coils will continuously extract moisture from the air which is allowed to flow out of the chamber. The humidity in the chamber wil then, of course, be constantly replaced by water evaportating from the corpse until the corpse is completely dehydrated.
At this time, I would select the methods for dehydration that do not require heating of the body. That is, I would favor using dessicants or dehumidifiers to extract the moisture from a cadaver's tissues. Once the body is completely dried out, some means must be provided to keep any atmospheric moisture from reentering it. To achieve this, the corpse should be placed in some sort of airtight plastic cylinder into which a small supply of powdered dessicant material has be placed. This plastic capsule must then be carefully sealed and placed into a secure ABOVE GROUND crypt where it will remain undisturbed long enough for the required decades or centuries to pass until earthly technology advances to the point where it will be possible to resurrect the body it contains.
With this method, the dehydrated cadaver will be perpetually preserved at AMBIENT temperatures so that the cumbersome need for refrigeration or cryogenic storage is eliminated. The person's crypt and storage capsule should be marked with some sort of obvious symbol so that future researchers will know that the person's corpse was specially preserved because the person was seeking a future reanimation. Perhaps the use of the ancient Egyptian "Anhk" which was their symbol for eternal life would be appropriate. One might also place a non-biodegradable document inside the hermetically sealed storage capsule that would identify the cadaver and also provide a brief biography of the person so that those handling the corpse in the future would have some idea of who they were working on.
So, now let us assume that one has followed the above recommendations and, perhaps, hopefully by the end of the 21st century is in a state of perfect preservation following their death from either natural or accidental causes. What then would be necessary, technologically, in order to reanimate their corpse, repair any disease or injuries to it, and then keep it in a rejuvenated state so that the person could continue to live indefinitely? It shall be the goal of the remaider of this article to outline what this incredible technology might be.
It will not be a simple matter of merely soaking the dehydrated cadaver in body temperature water and then applying artificial resusitation procedures such as ventilation of the lungs and electrical stimulation of the heart. The reason is that following a human being's death, there are IRREVERSIBLE necrotic changes that eventually take place in every cell of his body which make it impossible for the cells to carry out their normal metabolic processes. Mainly, after death, the cessation of blood circulation causes various cellular toxins and waste products to accumulate inside the cells and these will not be cleared out quickly enough by standard resusitation techniques so that cellular metabolisms can resume. Any method that might allow the resurrection of a dead organism must, in addition to restoring the circulation of oxygenated blood throughout the body, also be capable of eliminating these accumulated metabolic wastes from dead cells.
The natural tendency of bodily cells is to eliminate any wastes that accumulate in them, but after death this elimination process is overwhelmed by the build up that is forced to occur. Thus, a possible resurrection technology could be one that GREATLY accelerates the feeble natural cellular elimination processes that still persist in even dead cells. The possible process for reanimation which I am envisioning is one that would use an extreme reduction in mass of the dead cells to very greatly accelerate the elimination of the metabolic wastes from them that accumulated in them after the death of the whole organism which they form. The ONLY possible mass reduction technology that this writer is familiar with is the one that is hypothesized to be the secret behind UFO propulsion.
In my article titled "A UFO Propulsion Primer", I outlined my many years of research into unraveling the mystery of the technology that would be necessary in order to allow an extraterrestrial vehicle to visit Earth and perform in a manner similar to that displayed in the many reliable UFO sighting cases. I concluded that real UFO's could only be possible if their builders had solved the problem of neutralizing all of the mass that their craft and their crews normally possess. Once in this massless condition, a craft (and its crew) would no longer have any gravitational or inertial properties; that is, the craft would be weightless when near a planetary body and when it was in the near vacuum of space, because it was massless, the slightest force of thrust applied to its hull would allow it to instantly accelerate to a velocity far in excess of the velocity of light.
To achieve the state of masslessness, I hypothesized that EVERY real UFO must contain a device I called an "anti-mass field generator". This is a somewhat complex piece of equipment that contains one or more large radius toroidal electromagnets which are capable of being physically rotated about the center of the craft which usually contains its occupant section. Each of the toroidal electromagnets also contains a toroidal tubular capacitor. In operation, the pilot of the craft will energize the toroidal electromagnets so that each will contain a strong toroidal electromagnetic field at its core. Simultaneously, the many plates of the toroidal tubular capacitors are electrically charged so as to establish strong electric fields between them which, due to the positioning of the capacitors within each toroidal electromagnet, causes their representational electric field lines to always be everywhere at right angles to the direction of the representational electromagnetic field lines which interpentrate these electric fields.
At this point the pilot of the UFO will activate a control which then causes the toroidal electromagnets of his craft's anti-mass field generator to begin rotation around the center of the vehicle. (In practically all of the UFO's observed, this rotation is not visible because the anti-mass field generator is built into the hull of the craft. Only in rare cases is the equipment located in hull sections that rotate separately from the occupant section of the UFO and these cases account for the craft observed with outer rotating rims or rings.) Once the internal electromagnetic fields of the craft's anti-mass field generator are forced to move ALONG their field lines and at right angles to the electric fields of each toroidal tubular capacitor, a remarkable effect will take place. The magnetic and electric fields, which from a theoretical physics point of view can be considered to be composed of minute, subatomic particles, will, due to actual physical collisions between these subatomic particles, combine their component subatomic particles so as to continuously form a new composite subatomic particle known as an "anti-graviton". As the speed of rotation of the tori that comprise the craft's anti-mass field generator is increased, the frequency of collision of the magnetic and electric field component subatomic particles will increase and, consequently, more and more anti-gravitons will be created per second. These anti-gravitons will then physically penetrate the structures of the anti-mass field generator and stream out of the UFO's hull at light velocity.
The reader may now wonder just how this emission of anti-gravitons from a UFO's propulsion equipment could cause the craft to become massless. Before this can be explained, however, we must first briefly explain why a UFO and its crew have the properties that define their masses in the first place.
From my UFO research, I have hypothesized that the reason that a UFO and its crew normally have masses (and the gravitational and inertial properties whose magnitudes define those masses) is because the subatomic particles which compose their atoms are constantly emitting another subatomic particle known as a "graviton" in large numbers. As gravitons leave an object, they can be considered to form long, chain-like structures called "streams". It is the interaction of an object's graviton streams with those of neighboring objects (like planetary bodies) which gives rise to the force we call "gravity" that tends to move any two objects in the universe closer to each other. To explain the inertial forces that arise when a massive object is accelerated, we can imagine that the graviton streams that it constantly emits at light velocity undergo a kind of bending or buckling of their three-dimensional emission pattern which then creates a force on the object that tends to retard its motion.
As an object gets larger or denser, it will contain more subatomic particles and will, thereby, emit more graviton streams. The more graviton streams emitted from an object, the more intense will be the gravitational and inertial properties displayed by that object. When it is near a planetary body, it will be pulled closer to it with more force then is applied to a smaller or less dense object and it will be perceived as heavier. If a force is applied to a larger or more dense object to accelerate it at a certain rate, more force will need to be applied to it to overcome the greater motion retarding force created by the bending of more emitted graviton streams. Thus, a larger or more dense object will be perceived to have more "mass" than a smaller or less dense object.
As the anti-gravitons exit the hull of a propulsively active UFO, they will also form long, chain-like streams of particles. These anti-graviton streams will be intermixed with the normally emitted graviton streams issuing from the subatomic particles that compose the atoms of the craft and its crew. As this happens, another remarkable effect will occur. We can imagine the outward traveling streams of artificially produced anti-gravitons and naturally occuring gravitons to have opposite "polarities". This is due to the fact that both particles are actually identical to each other with the single exception that their intrinsic "spins" are in opposite directions with respect to each other. This is a CRITICAL detail because it causes anti-gravitons and gravitons traveling in the SAME direction to be strongly attracted to each other. In fact, they are so strongly attracted to each other that they actually leave their individual streams and bond to each other to form a shower of "couplets" each of which contains one anti-graviton and one graviton. In the process, the individual anti-graviton and graviton streams exiting the UFO break up and are destroyed. Since it is the attractive forces acting between the particles in the GRAVITON stream that give rise to the gravitational and inertial forces that the UFO and its crew would normally experience, the destruction of the graviton streams via couplet formation effectively renders the UFO and its crew MASSLESS! For all practical purposes the UFO and its crew behave as though they were not emitting any gravitons at all and they thereby become weightless and inertialess!
In a planet's atmosphere, the UFO's pilot can precisely adjust the mass of his craft so that its weight is so low that it will actually float in the air like a hot air balloon even though it is still made of metal that, without the use of its anti-mass field genrator, would normally weight in the tens of tons. If thrusting forces are applied to the craft's hull and the aerodynamic drag on it can be sufficiently reduced, the craft will, after being made completely massless, be able to rapidly accelerate and achieve velocities that could be in the tens of thousands of miles per hour. Executing a near instantaneous right angle turn at these high velocities poses no hazard to either the craft or its crew. Being massless, neither the structures of the craft or the bodies of its crew members will feel any inertial forces acting upon them. Indeed, a crew member who is not viewing the scenery outside of his craft will be oblivious to the craft's motion no matter how violently its pilot might be maneuvering it!
In space, without obstruction, the slightest force applied to a massless UFO will cause it to immediately accelerate to a velocity far in excess of that of light. In fact, it is THEORETICALLY possible for a massless UFO in a PERFECT vacuum to achieve INFINITE velocity. In practice, however, this can not happen because, even in the regions between galaxies, there are enough intergalactic gas particles (mostly individual hydrogen atoms) and dust to produce sufficient drag on a UFO's hull so as to prevent it from achieving infinite velocity. Of course, the final terminal velocity that a UFO might attain can be tens, hundreds, or even thousands of times that of light! With velocities such as these, interstellar and even interGALACTIC space voyages become possible to achieve within a very small fraction of a crew members lifespan.
There is another situation involving the reduction in mass of objects which we must now consider and which will be seen to be CRITICAL to the material that will be presented in the remainder of this article. This situation has to do with the sudden reduction in mass of an object which has some velocity and, thus, kinetic energy BEFORE its mass is reduced.
Let us imagine that a UFO and its crew are in interstellar space and that their craft's anti-mass field generator is not activated. They, consequently, have their full, normal masses and the crew members float about inside their craft and must, perhaps, use wall mounted handrails to pull themselves along to move from one to another section of the craft. Let us assume that the pilot activates some small rocket motor at one end of the UFO that, after ejecting exhaust gas for several minutes, finally manages to accelerate the massive vehicle and its crew to a velocity of a fraction of a foot per second. Once this is done, the rocket motor is shut off.
At this point the massive craft and its crew have a small velocity and a small amount of kinetic energy which can be easily calculated if we know their total mass. Now, let us assume that the craft's anti-mass field generator could be instantly activated so as to immediately make the craft and its crew massless (in a real UFO it might take a fraction of a minute for the craft's anti-mass field generator to fully neutralize the craft and crew's masses). What then would be the consequences of this action?
As soon as the craft's anti-mass field generator begins emitting anti-gravitons in sufficient numbers, the masses of the craft and its crew members will almost instantly drop to zero. Because the equation for kinetic energy is given by: kinetic energy = (1/2) x (mass) x (velocity) x (velocity), we see that, IF the kinetic energy of an object is conserved (i.e., remains constant) as the mass of an object dwindles to zero, then the velocity of the object MUST increase to INFINITY! In the case of the hypothetical UFO being considered in this example, we would expect its velocity to nearly instantly increase toward infinite velocity as its mass nearly instantly drops to zero. Of course, in the real universe, the UFO's velocity would not really become infinite. It would momentarily increase to some huge hyper-light terminal velocity and then just as quickly drop down to zero again. This is because the space that the craft will travel through is not quite a perfect vacuum. In intergalactic space there is approximately one hydrogen atom per cubic meter of space and, at the enormous hyper-light velocity that our UFO momentarily moves at, this will produce enough aerodynamic drag on its metallic hull to cause it to quickly reach a FINITE terminal velocity. As the craft plows through this extremely tenuous intergalactic medium for a few seconds, it will very quickly use up what initial kinetic energy it received from the initial use of its rocket motor and then come to a complete standstill once again.
Obviously, for a space traveling, MASSLESS UFO to maintain a steady hyper-light velocity in the real universe, it is necessary for it to CONTINUOUSLY eject material from some sort of rocket motor. All of this is due to the fact that real interstellar and intergalactic space is not a perfect vacuum.
However, there are an infinite number of places in the universe where space IS a perfect vacuum and in these places it is possible for the velocity of objects which have become massless to achieve INFINITE velocity! It is the ability to achieve such infinite velocity which may make it possible to reanimate and resurrect even long dead organisms! To understand how these incredible feats might soon be achievable, we must now switch the setting of the explanation from UFO's and the infinite universe to the infinitesimal structure of matter itself.
While intergalactic space is not quite a perfect vacuum, such perfect vacuums do exist at the atomic and molecular level of material organization. For example, as electrons orbit their atom's nucleus, they literally travel through a region of space which contains no finer massive particles. Thus, the electrons in ALL atoms move in a perfect vacuum. In a similar fashion, as a molecule moves through the space between any two collisions with neighboring molecules (known in physics as the "mean free path"), it also experiences no drag and, in essence, travels through a perfect vacuum. It is only when we consider higher levels of material organization that perfect vacuums cease to exist.
In the prior example of a hypothetical moving, massive UFO and its crew that suddenly became massless due to the emission of anti-gravitons from the craft's anti-mass field generator, we noted that the craft and its crew, AS A WHOLE, could not achieve infinite velocity while massless due to the aerodynamic drag associated with their large scale motion through the tenuous debris of space. We did not, however, consider what was happening on the microscopic level inside the atoms of the craft and the bodies of the crew members. On the microscopic level, with the absence of drag, the atomic electrons and free molecules would achieve INFINITE velocity while the craft and its crew were maintained in a state of masslessness!
As far as individual atoms are concerned, quantum theory actually makes the velocity of motion of their individual subatomic components irrelevant. When MASSLESS and moving at infinite velocity, electrons will remain in their ground state orbitals, these orbitals will maintain their normal sizes and orientations, and will maintain their normal energies since there is no change in the kinetic energies of an atom's electrons if their velocities increase while their masses dwindle. Thus, massless atoms whose subatomic components move at infinite velocity will not radiate off their electrons' energies to cause a collapse of the atom's structure. In a similar fashion, the atomic nucleus, composed of protons and neutrons, will also experience a infinite increase in the motions of these subatomic particles, but all quantum nuclear energy states within a nucleus will remain unchanged as the nucleus becomes massless. Thus, nuclei that are made massless will not lose energy via a sudden increase in radioactive particle or photon emission.
From studying the many possible ramifications of this state of infinite subatomic and molecular motion, one quickly can deduce certain conclusions about what effects this bizarre condition will have on living organisms.
Firstly, a massless crew member will be completely UNAWARE that his bodily electrons and molecules are moving at infinite velocity! Thus, he will feel nothing as his body's mass dwindles and his subatomic, atomic, and molecular velocities of motion become infinite. We can imagine all of the chemical reactions occurring in an organism's body to be a huge, but finite, set of interlocking equilibria; that is, when in its metabolic "steady state" or "homeostatic state", all of the concentrations of chemicals within its individual cells and the bodily fluids have more or less constant concentrations. The RATE at which individual compounds break down or "catabolize" are EXACTLY equal to the rate at which they are formed from precursors or "anabolize". These interlocking equilibria are unaffected by the velocity at which molecules within a mass reduced organism move about prior to chemical reactions taking place. As the organism's body becomes massless, the velocity of motion of its component molecules will become infinite and this will cause the rates of ALL chemical reactions to THEORETICALLY become infinite. However, since catabolic reactions are always balanced by anabolic reactions in this state, there is no net change in the total metabolic processes of the organism's various organ systems.
If the crew member of a massless UFO consumes a meal, his body will still assimilate it at a rate sufficient to meet his metabolic needs and his respiration and waste elimination will be normal. If, however, he performs strenuous work, he may notice that he seems to have a greatly enhance capacity to perform such work. Now his massless blood will be able to nourish and detoxify body cells at an enhanced rate so that he will not easily tire. He will not have an infinite capacity for work, though, because, although metabolic process can THEORETICALLY occur at an infinite rate within his body, this rate will be limited by the fluidic drag that large biomolecules will experience as they try to diffuse through various cellular membranes and channels. In this case, the rate of metabolism will not be able to achieve an infinite rate within the body for reasons that, strangely, are quite similar to those that prevent a massless UFO from achieving an infinite rate of velocity during intergalactic travel.
This is a limitation that is good to have, because if it did not exist then it might actually make the massless state one that could be lethal to a living organism. For example, what good would masslessness be if it disrupted the organism's neurological system to the point where its muscles could not be used or if it caused unconsciousness or brain damage? Obviously, if extraterrestrials are visiting Earth and doing so while remaining in a massless state during an interstellar or intergalactic voyage that might last days, weeks, or months, then we can only assume that this condition, although unnatural, is a benign one.
Should a crew member of a massless UFO experience a physical injury while massless, we can safely conclude that the injury will heal at an incredibly accelerated rate, perhaps so fast as to appear instantaneous. Thus, if he cuts his skin on a sharp surface, the blood will almost instantly clot and the cells surrounding the wound will rapidly replicate themselves until the wound is closed and appears normal. Even if a crew member's limb is severed, it might be a simple matter of putting the severed surfaces together for a few seconds during which the bones and blood vessels would quickly fuse together and heal followed by the surrounding muscles and skin. Should the crew member have lost a significant amount of blood, the this would rapidly be replaced by his bone marrow which would be supplied by his liver and other tissues with the materials needed to form new blood cells. An accident that would normally be fatal without acute surgical treatment while massive might be as easy to treat as the most minor of injuries!
The state of masslessness will cause chemical processes on the microscopic level to achieve an infinite rate of reaction, but, on an everyday scale of observation, we can expect the various structural hinderances that are part of an organism's internal structures to put a finite limiting value on the organism's overall rate of metabolic processes. Although individual blood cells, while massless, would be able to move at an infinite velocity in a perfect vacuum, the fact is that they are in a fluid medium and subject to the fluid drag they feel from the plasma they are carried along by. Also, although the organism's blood is massless and THEORETICALLY could flow at infinite velocity, it's actual velocity in the organism's vascular system will not become infinite. The overall velocity of the blood will be limited by the drag it experiences as it is pushed through the circulatory system by the heart which, although massless, continues to beat at its normal rate. Heart rate and the nervous tissue that controls it are unaffected by being massless. The heart rate will be controlled by the level of blood gases and various hormones and these will only be produced AS NEEDED by the organism's metabolism. Also, since the rate at which neurons transmit nerve impulses is limited by the rates at which various ions of sodium and potassium diffuse through channels within the length of the nerve cell, these nerve conduction velocities will not become infinite although they may increase as needed for the organism to function in an enhanced manner.
Now consider the following interesting possibility for a crew member aboard a massless UFO that is traveling through the near vacuum of outer space. Even when traveling at hundreds of times the velocity of light, interstellar space voyages could take weeks to complete and this can put a strain on a craft's life support systems. It would be convenient if there was some rapid and safe method for placing unnecessary personnel into a state in which they would no longer require air, food, or water. We can imagine an unnecessary crew member entering some sort of airtight, cylindrical plastic chamber whose hatch would then be sealed. Pressing a button inside of the chamber would then open a valve that allowed the small amount of air in the chamber to vent out into the vacuum of the space surrounding the craft (or the chamber could be exhausted with a vacuum pump and the air stored for later repressurization). As the air pressure dropped to zero inside the chamber, all of the water molecules inside of the crew member's body would rapidly leave his tissues and be drawn out with the escaping air. Within seconds the crew member would be completely dehydrated and in a state of perfect preservation.
When it was time to revive the crew member, the valve to the outside of the craft would be closed and a mixture of body temperature water and air would be pumped into the chamber from inside of the ship. Within seconds, this water would be reabsorbed via capillary action and diffusion into every cell in the being's body and all normal life functions would again resume. Once fully conscious, the crew member would be removed from the chamber. Of course, in this case the crew member was never at any time really dead. His life functions were merely turned off and then on again by the near instantaneous removal and then restoration of all bodily water.
If the reader has followed the above treatment, then he may rightly conclude that the state of masslessness can, under certain conditions, produce seemingly miraculous results. Not only can it allow objects and living beings to levitate by extinquishing the normally present properties of weight and inertia, but it can also exert profound effects on the metabolism of an organism. When under physical stress, the massless state allows an organism to function at a greatly enhanced rate. Physical exertion can become almost effortless and physical injuries heal almost instantaneously! Quite fortunately, a prolonged state of masslessness allows living creatures to engage in realistic interstellar and intergalactic space travel, yet does not impair the ability of the beings to function in anyway.
Now let us return to the main topic of this article now that the basics of the massless state have been sufficiently covered. We must now deal with the subject of the reanimation and resurrection of the dead to a condition of immortality. As will shortly be shown, if masslessness is possible to achieve artificially, then it may also provide a realistic chance to resurrect the dead!
As a final example, let us consider just how the resurrection of a dead organism might be achieved once we have mastered the technology of rendering objects massless on a routine basis. In particular, let us speculate as to just how it might be possible to return a carefully dehydrated cadaver to a state of life again and what the consequences of this capability might be.
To perform the reanimation all that would be necessary is to transport the deceased's storage capsule to a special facility which has the necessary equipment needed to reduce the mass of the cadaver to zero. At the facility, the hermetically sealed capsule would be stood upright and the sealed cap near the head of the body would be removed. Fresh air would fill the chamber and then a carefully measure quantity of water would be poured into the chamber which would collect near the feet of the dehydrated corpse. This water would have a temperature that might be slightly above the normal body temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Once this was done, the cap would be replaced and the entire capsule would be inserted into a tunnel which was surrounded by a series of small radius anti-mass field generators whose anti-mass field radiations would overlap each other and be able to reduce the mass of any objects placed in the tunnel to zero.
Upon activating the anti-mass field generators, the contents of the capsule would become massless. As this happened, the velocity of all subatomic particles and molecules within the capsule would rise to infinity. Capillary action would become enormously increased and all of the water placed in with the dehydrated corpse would nearly instantly be reabsorbed into all of the cells of the person. Simultaneously, his vascular system would be rehydrated as his blood cells reconstituted themselves and expanded to their normal size and shape. His shriveled muscle fibers would also quickly rehydrate and expand to full size. Within seconds of being rendered massless, the deceased's physical appearance will be identical to that which he had on the day he died.
Of course, unlike the case of the unnecessary UFO crew member discussed above, the person we are now discussing was actually DEAD when his remains were dehydrated. Now we have him rehydrated, but is he still dead? Amazingly, the state of masslessness MAY be able to remedy this inconvenient situation! With all subatomic and molecular motion now infinite within his body, ALL of the toxins and metabolic wastes that accumulated within his body shortly after death should be rapidly removed from every body cell. As his nervous system begins to function again, his heart will restart and he will begin breathing very deeply and rapidly as he exhales the excessive amounts of carbon dioxide that accumulated in his tissues when his circulatory system previously failed. As other cellular toxins accumulate in the blood, the person's liver will rapidly convert them to an excretable form which the kidneys will then pass into the urine. This effect might cause the person to begin voiding a huge amount of urine as his body cleanses itself of these toxins. Any water lost through urination would be quickly reabsorbed through his skin from the warm water initially introduced into the capsule.
With subatomic and molecular motion moving at infinite velocity within his body, all natural healing processes will be greatly accelerated. Injuries to his body will heal nearly instantly and cellular mechanisms will be able to either destroy all existing cancer cells or restore them to normal again. Cellular repair of damaged DNA would reverse the normal aging that renders bodily cells incapable of functioning efficiently and these cells would then begin to function as they did when a person was in their youth. The person's skin would, after a few moments of masslessness, appear smooth and wrinkle free. Serum hormones will also be restored to youthful levels.
After perhaps a minute of being maintained in a massless state, the person would once again be alive, fully conscious, and restored to the biological condition he enjoyed in his twenties! He can then finally exit the capsule, regain his normal bodily mass and weight, and resume his life. Since memory is chemically stored within the brain, he will have a complete memory of his prior life and its experiences. So, even though, technically, he might chronologically be close to 200 years old, BIOLOGICALLY, he would only be a little over twenty years old. Of course, once he has regained his normal mass, he will from that point on continue to age at a normal rate and still be subject to death from accidents or diseases. But, once the resurrection technology is operational, this limitation is one that can easily be overcome. Perhaps every decade, a resurrected person could enter the resurrection chamber for a "tune up" during which time his bodily cells would be rejuvenated as any health problems were quickly reversed. In this manner, it is theoretically possible to achieve physical immortality!
With the above, I have tried to give a plausible description of how the dead might someday be reanimated. It assumes, of course, that there is enough of a deceased remains available for the process and that they were carefully preserved through dehydration. Obviously, if the person was decapitated and the body is all that remains, then this process would not work (however, if a head is all that remains, then it might be possible to rapidly clone a new body for it). Also, if the body was not preserved intact then the process will not work either. It will not be possible to resurrect a pile of dust or cremated remains. However, if the body was torn to pieces in some sort of violent accident and all of the pieces were preserved, then it MIGHT be possible to perform the resurrection. In this case, the preserved pieces would have to be carefully fitted together and then held in proximity while their masses where reduced to zero. As the body's natural healing processes were accelerated, the broken bones, muscles, and blood vessels would reunite and begin functioning normally again.
The astute reader may have realized by now that once we manage to duplicate the anti-mass field generators utilized by UFO's, the human pilots and passengers of these craft will, while massless, also be experiencing the same effects as would a cadaver being reanimated at a special resurrection facility! In fact, once we can build and fly our own massless air and spacecraft, we may then AUTOMATICALLY never have to worry about death again. With each flight a person would be rejuvenated and healed of any medical problems. Any person who had been killed in an accident or from some sudden illness could then just be brought aboard the nearest propulsively active craft for a quick resurrection. In these cases, the extra warm water need not be supplied since the deceased will still have most of his bodily tissues well hydrated.
What might the consequences be of a world where death and disease have been permanently and completely eliminated?
Obviously, the biggest problem with the practical attainment of physical immortality by the human race would be overpopulation and the rapid depletion of our natural resources. For this reason, if and when resurrection and rejuvenation become possible, there will have to be a severe drop in the birth rates of the cultures to first use the new technology. Since births are nature's way of replacing the percentage of population lost to death, they become unnecessary when individuals can live forever. However, there will always be a small percentage of population that is irretrievably lost to death and reproduction will be necessary to replace these people. Of course, with the new technology of anti-mass field generation, it may be possible to greatly increase our planet's food supplies to accomadate a growing population for a while. Also, as we begin to construct spacecraft capable of easily transporting large numbers of people to other planets within our own solar system, then Earth's population pressure might be relieved for a while by a program of emigration.
There has been much discussion in the news of late concerning an eventual goal for the American space program of landing men on the planet Mars. With our current rocket dominated level of space technology, this will be a very expensive and risky adventure. With the use of massless spacecraft, however, it becomes no more difficult than a brief flight in a commercial airliner!
Mars, although smaller than Earth, actually has a land surface that is EQUAL to the land surface of the Earth. To survive on Mars, low cost, prefabricated domes or tubular modules would be pressurized with pure oxygen gas to about 25% of the normal sea level atmospheric pressure of Earth. This artificial oxygen atmosphere will be conveniently obtained via the electrolysis of water from melted ice found at the Martian polar caps and will be continuously "scrubbed" of any carbon dioxide build up in it due to the human and animal population's respiration by carefully cultivated green house vegetation and solar powered CO2 scrubbing equipment. With this simple and reliable technology, it should be possible to sustain a human population of hundreds of millions there within a few decades of our arrival on the red planet in massless spacecraft.
If there is no curb on procreation, however, then humanity will eventually be forced to engage in interstellar and even intergalactic exploration in order to find new worlds to colonize. In fact, I can envision a day, perhaps several centuries from now, when the majority of humanity will not reside on planet Earth!
As a final note, it can probably be safely asserted that when we have gained ultimate control over death via technology, much of the fear and uncertainty that diminishes an individual's life and thoughts will be permanently banished. Perhaps we will then experience a golden age of freedom, brotherhood, and even spirituality that will transform every aspect of human culture. At some point, as we venture out into the cosmos in search of living space, we will encounter spacefaring alien cultures who also have discovered the secrets of modulating the effects associated with mass. Like us, they too will be immortal. With something as profound as that in common, we will accept them as our cosmic brethren and together we will share the universe in peace and harmony.
(Note: this article completed January 15th, 2004)
COSMIC VAULT GIFT SHOP