Make your own free website on

Explore the Secrets of the Paranormal in:

by Kenneth W. Behrendt

Click here for a FREE preview!

Click Here to Enlarge Cover Image

Find Answers to the UFO Mystery in:

by Kenneth W. Behrendt

Click here for a FREE preview!

Click Here to Enlarge Cover Image

Find EVEN MORE Answers to the UFO Mystery in:

by Kenneth W. Behrendt

Click here for a FREE preview!

Click Here to Enlarge Cover Image

Answers for the MOST serious of ufologists:

by Kenneth W. Behrendt

Click here for a FREE preview!

Click Here to Enlarge Cover Image

Know Tomorrow's Science Today:

by Kenneth W. Behrendt

Click here for a FREE preview!

Click Here to Enlarge Cover Image

How and Why Extraterrestrials Visit Earth

by Kenneth W. Behrendt

The idea that extraterrestrial beings are visiting our planet on a routine basis is currently unacceptable to the majority of the scientific orthodoxy. The reasons for this are many, but the major one I eventually became aware of in my study of the the subject is that such voyages, while not absolutely forbidden by it, are, however, made very improbable by Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity.

One of the consequences of this theory is that it is not possible for a massive material object such as a spaceship or UFO to either attain or exceed the velocity of light (which is about 186,000 miles per second in a vacuum). This limitation means that a single large UFO or an even larger "mothership" carrier of smaller "scout ship" UFO's would require hundreds of THOUSANDS of years to travel between any two of the nearest star systems in our galaxy IF the craft only attained the range of velocities achievable by current earthly space vehicles (which are several tens of thousands of miles per hour). Without the capability of hyper-light velocity travel (i.e., at speeds greater than that of light), it just does not seem to make sense that hypothetical alien beings would be willing to spend their entire lives pursuing a mission to Earth which would only be realized by their remote descendents many millenia later. It makes even less sense to suppose that, should any extraterrestrial race manage to complete such a journey, they would merely overfly some human witnesses on a deserted road at night and then depart without making an open announcement of their presence to the people and their governments of Earth.

Some have made the suggestion that the voluminous case histories of UFO occupant sightings could be rationalized by merely assuming that our visitors come from other planets or bodies within OUR solar system. Thus, the early l950's of the Modern Era of ufology saw many theories asserting that aliens were coming to Earth from nearby planets like Venus or Mars or even from the inside of our nearest neighbor...the Moon. These theories all almost immediately become untenable once one considers the nature of the occupant sighting cases. Usually, alien entities are observed near a landed craft that are "humanoid" in appearance (i.e., they have a head, torso, and limbs) and do not have need of any kind of self-contained environment in order to function at a distance from their craft. Therefore, they usually do not wear pressure suits or carry tanks of compressed gases on their backs. The clear implication of this is that, like human beings, they had to have evolved in an environment that included such things as gravity, land, oceans, forests, weather, and an OXYGEN atmosphere.

While an origin for extraterrestrials within OUR solar system would certainly make it far easier for them to visit Earth on such a regular basis, the requirement for an oxygen atmophere during their evolution strictly precludes any planet other that Earth in our solar system as being their home world. All of the other planets in our solar system are either too hot or too cold for the evolution of humanoid life and none possesses the critically important oxygen rich atmosphere.

One theory postulates that UFO's could be manned by beings that evolved INSIDE of the Earth itself and that these bizarre offshoots of the human race descended into the deepest caverns within the Earth's crust to continue developing on their own for millions of years. I do not, however, believe that this is a satisfactory answer to the puzzle of extraterrestrial visitation. While I have no objection to the possibility of subterrestrial beings coexisting on planet Earth along with its present surface dwelling human population, I think that it is unlikely that such subterrestrial beings could ever develop any sort of advanced technology. The reason is that, deep in their subterranean caverns, oxygen is a rather precious commodity. This means that they would not be using fire for light and heat because it would rapidly deplete their oxygen supply (to see their environment, these beings would have evolved the ability to see in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum and their environment would be warm enough to eliminate the need of fire for heating). Without fire, they would not be able to develop such things as metallurgy, chemistry, electronics, etc. which are sciences whose extensive applications are repeatedly demonstrated in the UFO / occupant sighting cases.

Some have suggested that UFO's and their occupants are all accidental observations of secret craft and their human crews that have been developed by the major governments of Earth as each desperately tries to develop the ultimate propulsion system for use as a military weapon. One can evision future wars wherein fleets of small unmanned UFO's traveling at thousands of miles per hour would streak to their assigned enemy targets to deliver a variety of deadly weapons. They would have the stealth capabilities of our current cruise missiles, but would be far faster and reuseable. While I have no doubts that the UFO phenomenon IS the subject of intense research by the major governments of the world and that the technology will eventually be used for "defensive" purposes, these ongoing "black projects" are just not sufficient to account for all of the THOUSANDS of reliable occupant type UFO sighting cases. These cases are just too widely spread out around the globe and involve beings that, although humanoid, are most definitely NOT human. Some are giants, others are dwarfs, and some appear to have the features of reptiles or even insects! This, again, suggests an origin outside of our Earth.

So we see that in evaluating the many thousands of occupant cases that are part of the UFO literature, we are forced to consider an origin that is outside of our solar system. We are naturally led to an interplanetary origin hypothesis. But, as was shown earlier in this article, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity would seem to make an interplanetary origin unlikely. If we are going to make any progress in undertanding the nature of extraterrestrial visitations to Earth, we MUST find some way of reconciling these apparently antithetical concepts.

Skeptics of the UFO phenomenon use the simplest approach in reconciling these two mutually exclusive concepts: they merely assert that UFO's and extraterrestrials do not exist and thus there is no need to reconcile anything with relativity theory which, in many physics experiments during the twentieth century, has repeatedly shown itself to be valid.

I, however, am firmly convinced that there is an alternative way to reconcile extraterrestrial visitation with the velocity limitations of Special Relativity Theory without the need to deny the validity of either. We can thereby accept that the thousands of UFO / occupant sighting cases are, perhaps, about 10% of the time actually describing REAL PHYSICAL visitation of Earth by extraterrestrials and that Special Relativity is valid, EXCEPT when one attempts to apply it to space traveling UFO's!

We must remember that Special Relativity Theory only applies to MASSIVE material objects that are accelerated to relativistic velocities (i.e., velocities that are near to the velocity of light). The theory assumes that the object being considered had some mass when initially at rest before kinetic energy was imparted to it to accelerate it. However, IF the object could be rendered MASSLESS BEFORE it was accelerated, then it should no longer experience any of the limitations that are ordinarily imposed on massive objects by Einstein's breakthrough theory.

According to relativity theory, as a material object with finite initial rest mass is supplied with kinetic energy and thereby begins to accelerate toward the velocity of light, the object will increasingly convert more and more of each extra amount of kinetic energy it receives into EXTRA mass and less and less of the extra kinetic energy it receives will show up as an increase in the velocity of the object. The equations that describe this bizarre effect indicate that in order to push any MASSIVE object to the speed of light, that object would need to be supplied with an INFINITE amount of energy which would then cause the object to have INFINITE mass when it finally reached light velocity. Obviously, this is an impossible scenario and, thus, no initially MASSIVE material object such as a spaceship or a "conventionally" imagined (i.e., massive) UFO would be able to either attain or surpass the upper limiing velocity of light anywhere in our cosmos.

When extraterrestrial visit Earth, they appear to do so via one of two distinct means: they either come here in a single larger craft (perhaps in the range of 64 to 128 feet in at least one dimension) which has the capacity to physically land on the surface of our planet or on of its bodies of water, or they arrive in a far large "mothership" which is usually cylindrical in shape (with a length of hundreds or even thousands of feet!) and which can then dispatch its "brood" of smaller "scout" craft that can explore a planet and convey extraerrestrials to the planet's surface (the mothership itself is not capable of landing directly on the Earth's surface). In either case, these craft (except for the smaller scout craft) are each capable of engaging directly in interstellar travel at velocities that may be hundreds, thousands, or even tens of thousands of times GREATER than the velocity of light!

In much of my previous writings on the UFO subject, I have theorized that ALL actual extraterrestrial UFO's and their crews have the capacity to totally negate or cancel out their normally present mass when at rest by the use of a remarkable device called an "anti-mass field generator". This device consists of large radius toroidal electromagnets whose current carrying metallic windings are wrapped around an electrically charged toroidal tubular capacitor located at the core of each toroidal electromagnet. Each torus thus contains a core toroidal magnetic field whose lines of force are oriented everywhere inside the core at RIGHT ANGLES to the electric field lines of the electric fields that exist between the charged metallic plates of the core's toroidal tubular capacitor.

When the entire structure of an energized torus is made to PHYSICALLY rotate inside the hull of a UFO, an effect, as yet unknown to earthly physics, is produced. As the ultimate subatomic particles that compose both the magnetic and electric fields inside the core collide with each other due to the rotation of the device, these particles fuse together and form a composite particle called an "antigraviton" which then exits the torus at light velocity. When a UFO's anti-mass field generator is producing antigravitons at a sufficient rate, the antigravitons will be able to then combine with the normal emission of gravitons streaming out from the subatomic particles of the atoms that compose the craft and its crew. It is the gravitons streaming out of objects at light velocity which gives them their normal gravitation and inertial properties which we then use to define their masses.

When a UFO's artificially produced antigravitons unite with the craft's naturally emitted gravitons OUTSIDE of the craft the result is that they form "spin coupled pairs" which no longer behave like streams of either antigravitons or gravitons. It is as though, when the emission of both antigravitons and gravitons is perfectly balanced, that the craft is EFFECTIVELY not emitting any gravitons at all! This results in the craft immediately losing all of its normally present gravitational and inertial properties. It and its crew immediately become BOTH weigthless AND massless and will remain so as long as the craft's anti-mass field generator(s) continue to produce antigravitons at a sufficient rate.

An alien mothership will have a series of anti-mass field generator tori placed along its cylindrical length that would overlap their emitted antigravitons so that their emission pattern will, more or less, match the emission pattern of the carrier craft's normally emitted gravitons. Once this state is maintained, the mothership and its crew (which might number in the hundreds or even thousands) would no longer display their normal gravitational and inertial properties. If the huge vessel had been constructed on the surface of an alien planet in another solar system, it will, once its propulsion system has been activated, become effectively massless, weightless, and inertialess. The ship might then, if so allowed, begin to float free of its construction site and rise up into the alien planet's atmosphere in a manner similar to that of an earthly airship known as a dirigible.

Before long, the massless mothership will rise to the very upper limit of the alien world's atmosphere and hover there. At this point its crew will activate the portion of its propulsion system that provides thrusts for attitudinal and translational motions. While still "embedded" in their planet's upper atmosphere, the alien crew will use small compressed gas thrusters located at various points on the mothership's outer metallic hull to gently nudge the leviathan craft until its nose or leading end points toward a distant star system to which they wish to travel. A series of larger gas thrusters located near the vessel's tail or trailing end will then be activated and begin spraying a gas out behind the craft. Perhaps simple water vapor created from water stored aboard the ship is used. Once the thruster valves are opened, this water will be exposed to the vacuum of space and will immediately begin boiling to form vapor whose pressure can be used to provide continuous low level thrust so long as the water supply does not run out or the water supply temperature does not drop to its freezing point (to prevent this problem in space, the water supply can be kept warm through the use of small nuclear reactors).

As water vapor sprays from the mothership"s rear thrusters, the massless craft will immediately streak toward its destination star system at a velocity that can be hundreds or even thousands of times that of light. Theoretically, the slightest thruster force applied to a massless craft's hull will, in a PERFECT vacuum, instantly cause it to accelerate to an infinite velocity. This would also be the case for the hypothetical extraterrestrial mothership we are now considering IF the intervening space between its home planet and its destination star system consisted of a perfect vacuum. This intervening space, however, is not a perfect vacuum, but, rather, contains such things as hydrogen gas and dust particles of various sizes. As the mothership accelerates to velocities that are thousands of times that of light, its nose or leading surface will be steadily impacting this interstellar debris.

As the tenuous debris gases and small dust particles contact the mothership's leading surfaces, they will, like the ship itself, become massless and will then easily and instantly be pushed out of the path of the mothership by its forward motion. However, for a fractionn of a second before these particles are pushed aside, they will be pushed in the direction of travel of the vessel by its nose. This action will result in a layer of debris particles building up on the craft's nose as it sweeps through a cylindrical volume of space per SECOND that is 186,000 miles in length TIMES whatever multiple of light velocity that the craft is moving at! This layer of debris particles that builds up on the mothership's leading surface will produce an increasing force on the ship's hull that will directly oppose the steady driving force on the ship produced by its rear thrusters. At some velocity, these two forces of drag and thrust will be perfectly balanced and the mothership will then attain its final and constant terminal velocity. This velocity will depend upon the rate at which matter is ejected from the vessel's rear thrusters AND the density of the debris particles along the trajectory of the craft. As was previously stated, due to the very low density of debris matter in interstellar space, a craft's final terminal "hyper-light" velocities in these regions of space could be on the order of hundreds or even thousands of times the speed of light.

At a hyper-light velocity of 1000 times the speed of light, an extraterrestrial mothership could complete a journey of 4 light-years between neighboring star systems in our galaxy in only 1.46 days! This mode of travel also makes INTERGALACTIC journeys possible in conveniently short time periods. Astrophysical research indicates that the density of debris particles in intergalactic space is only about 1/1,000,000 th of the density of such material found within a galaxy in interstellar space. This means that for a given thruster force, our mothership would be able to travel 1 MILLION times faster in intergalactic space than it would in interstellar space. Thus, if a given thruster force gave the mothership a terminal hyper-light velocity of 1000 times the speed of light in interstellar space, the craft would, with the same thruster output, be able to move at 1 BILLION times the velocity of light in the intergalactic space between galaxies! At a speed of 1 billion times the velocity of light, our hypothetical extraterrestrial mothership could complete a journey of 2.2 million light-years between the neighboring Andromeda galaxy and our home Milky Way galaxy in only 0.80 days or about 19 hours! Although these velocities may seem ludicrously high, they are infinitesimal compared to the INFINITE theoretical velocity that a massless craft would achieve IF space was a PERFECT vacuum which, of course, it is not.

The reader may, at this point, still be wondering how our hypothetical mothership is able to achieve velocities that are far in excess of the velocity of light so as to make interstellar and intergalactic travel practical WITHOUT violating the universal speed limit imposed by Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. The answer to this mystery is that extraterrestrial craft, ONCE MASSLESS, are not subject to the velocity limit ordinarily imposed on MASSIVE material objects by relativity theory.

Relativity theory states that as an object with some finite rest mass is accelerated to light velocity by a force that imparts kinetic energy to the object, the mass of the object will begin to increase to an INFINITE quantity as the velocity of light is approached by the accelerating object. Upon attaining light velocity, one would then have an infinitely massive object which would need to have been supplied with an infinite amount of energy to reach this speed. This is, obviously, a physically impossible task to accomplish in practice. Thus, the Special Theory of Relativity asserts that no material (i.e., possessing some finite mass to start with) object can ever be accelerated to the velocity of light or beyond it.

An extraterrestrial mothership, however, does NOT have any initial rest mass AFTER its mass negating anti-mass field generators are activated. Also, regardless of whether it is motionless or moving at a billion times the velocity of light, the vessel will have NO kinetic energy or momentum! As its rear thrusters spray out water vapor and apply force to its long cylindrical hull, no kinetic energy is imparted to the hull. Rather, the force of the thrusters is applied, indirectly through the physical structure of the hull, to the debris particles along the trajectory of the craft to overcome the back pressure that their compression imposes on the hull which tends to resist its forward motion. Thus, the force of the mothership's rear thrusters only supplies energy to compress a layer of debris particles in the path of the mothership and NO energy is supplied to the mothership itself. As the massless mothership accelerates to light velocity, it will REMAIN massless and can gain NO additional mass. This situation will persist even when the vessel is moving at velocities that are far in excess of the velocity of light.

This is also a good point in this article to add an additional detail concerning mothership space propulsion which my early research in the subject uncovered. Above it was shown that an extraterrestrial vessel could surpass the velocity of light because its mass did not increase to infinity as it's velocity reached that of light. The craft will also not experience the well-known "length contraction" and "time dilation" effects predicted by Special Relativity theory as it approaches the normally limiting velocity of light. A full treatment of the reasons for this are, unfortunately, beyond the scope of the present article. However, let it suffice here to just state that these other bizarre effects required by the Special Theory of Relativity do not occur because aboard a MASSLESS extraterrestrial craft the velocity of light becomes INFINITE! When an infinite value for the velocity of light is substituted into the equations of Special Relativity theory, these equations immediately reduce to the simpler and more familar equations of classical Newtonian physics that adequately describe the macroscopic world of our everyday experience.

Because of the lack of any time dilation aboard a massless extraterrestrial mothership moving at hyper-light velocity, there will be NO difference in the rate at which its crew and the rest of the external cosmos age. If its crew departs on an exploratory space journey that takes an earthly period of six months to complete, the vessel's crew will find, upon returning to their home world, that the beings they left behind had also, like the mothership's crew, aged by exactly the same earthly period of six months. Thus, as far as massless spacecraft are concerned, the so-called "twin paradox" scenario (that is often mentioned when relativity theory is explained) can not occur and the crew of such a craft ages at the exact same rate as the rest of the cosmos outside of the the ship.

This mode of propulsion, in essence, allows an extraterrestrial mothership to operate OUTSIDE of the constraints of the Special Theory of Relativity. We can, therefore, use most of the equations of classical Netwonian physics to describe processes aboard a massless extraterrestrial vessel although, when required, we must set mass equal to zero and the velocity of light equal to infinity to utilize those equations!

Upon reaching their destination star system, the crew of the massless vessel can reduce their ship's velocity by simply reducing the rate at which their ship's rear thrusters spray out water vapor. This action will then allow the debris forces on the hull to INSTANTLY slow the craft until a new lower terminal velocity is achieved. If the craft's rear thrusters are turned off completely, the the massless vessel will come to an immediate stop even if it was moving at a hyper-light velocity of 1000 times the velocity of light! The reason for this is that the craft, because it is massless in flight, has NO kinetic energy or momentum...its hull merely serves to apply the driving force of its thrusters against the drag force of the debris particles along the path of motion of the craft. If thrust force is no longer applied to the vessel's hull, then any drag force created by the hull's forward motion will immediately stop the motion of the hull. Such an instanteous deceleration from hyper-light velocities down to a dead stop will have no effect on the craft's crew most of who may actually be UNAWARE that the craft has come to a halt! They, like the craft they travel in, have no mass and experience no inertial forces acting on their bodies regardless of any accelerations or decelerations that the ship may undergo.

In fact, even should the craft impact a large piece of space debris, the results will not be catastrophic. For example, should the mothership, while moving at hyper-light velocity, collide dead center with a large asteroid, the ship would instantly come to a halt. Because of the asteroid's size, the composite anti-mass field of the mothership will not be able to neutralize all of its mass and then allow the hull to push a massless asteroid out of the way. In this scenario, the mothership will decelerate to a stop and find itself gently pressing its nose against the massive asteroid with the small force of its still operating rear thrusters. Since the craft's thrust is so low, it will produce negligible motion in the asteroid and deformational stress on the ship's hull.

While small attitudinal thrusters are adequate for orientating the mothership's hull when it is located or "embedded" in a planet's atmosphere, their use in space would cause the hull to violently spin about and would prevent accurate steering of the craft. I am of the opinion that, when in space traveling at hyper-light velocities, orienting the ship's hull can only be done while steering it and is achieved by merely extending small surfaces from the hull's nose that cause a condition of "asymmetric drag" to occur. That is, as a small metal piece is extended from the mothership's nose, the drag force on that side of the nose increases very slightly and that side of the hull slows down slightly while the opposite side of the hull maintains its normal terminal hyper-light velocity. The result is that the hull then veers in the direction of the extended nose piece. The pilot of the mothership can monitor the exterior view of space either directly through a window or indirectly via fiberoptic cameras and then correct the vessel's motion manually to keep it on course to its destination star system.

Upon reaching its destination star sytem, the mothership will reduce its terminal hyper-light velocity to, perhaps, a few times the velocity of light. At a speed of only 5 times that of light, our hypothetical massless mothership could reach Earth from the edge of our solar system in about one hour. As the craft neared to within a few hundred thousand miles of Earth (which is about the distance that our moon orbits the Earth), its terminal velocity might then be reduce down to a sub-light velocity of only a few hundreds of thousands of miles per hour as it prepared for its final entry into Earth's upper atmosphere.

Entering Earth's atmosphere is a simple matter of merely diving directly into it from space. The mothership can, at a velocity of hundreds of thousands of miles per hour, impact the upper levels of a planet's atmosphere and immediately be brought to a halt by the slight drag the craft's hull encounters from the tenuous concentration of gas atoms and molecules there. For a massless extraterrestrial mothership entering Earth's atmosphere, this will occur at an altitude of about 82 miles or so. Once the vessel is embedded in a planet's upper atmosphere (or at ANY lower level within a planetary atmosphere), it will, still being massless, be carried along by any motion of the gas particles that surround it as would any earthly dirigible.

To move about in a planet's atmosphere, a massless extraterrestrial mothership will use small gas thrusters for attitude adjustment. If these are the water vapor type, then as surrounding atmospheric pressure increases at lower altitudes, it will become necessary to heat the water with the craft's nuclear reactors so that it can be ejected as steam for thrust. Use of such a method of adjusting the attitude of a large cylindrical craft accounts for the many sightings of such vessels wherein they are enshrouded in mist and referred to as "cloud cigars". Translational motion of the craft can also be achieved by venting high pressure steam from the ship's rear thrusters. Unfortunately, this mode of propulsion in dense planetary atmospheres is somewhat cumbersome and massless extraterrestrial motherships that use it will be no more maneuvereable in Earth's lower atmosphere than an earthly dirigible. This stems from the very large aerodynamic drag that even a cylindrical hull will experience. Because of this velocity limit, it is far safer for an extraterrestrial vessel to remain suspended in the upper levels of the atmosphere where it is less likely to be bothered by the weapon systems (i.e., piloted aircraft, surface to air missiles, etc.) of any intelligent surface dwelling inhabitants. Translational motion will also be faster at higher altitudes because the thinner atmosphere there will produce less aerodynamic drag on the ship's hull.

From the vantage point of high altitude, the mothership, like an earthly aircraft carrier, can launch and recover its brood of smaller (usually about 32 feet in diameter or less) scout craft. These may be disc shaped or the more commonly observed spherical UFO's. These far smaller, massless craft, unlike most of their mothership carriers, use a "plasmadynamic mode" of propulsion to provide thrust forces on their metallic hulls while simultaneouly eliminating aerodynamic drag.

In the plasmadynamic mode of propulsion, the layer of atmosphere immediately surrounding a smaller massless UFO's nonferrous metallic hull is simultaneously penetrated by anti-mass field radiation from the craft's anti-mass field generator AND by both additional magnetic and electric fields that emanate into the atmospheric layer from low profile electromagnets and capacitor plates mounted on the INSIDE of the UFO's hull. The combined action of the anti-mass field radiation and magnetic fields penetrating the air near the scout craft's hull immediately ionizes this air and converts it into a rich boundary layer of plasma.

This plasma forms because the COMBINED effect of the anti-mass field radiation and hull magnetic fields weakens the electrostatic forces of ATTRACTION that hold electrons inside of their respective atmospheric atoms and molecules. Once these internal atomic forces are weakened, the magnetic fields emanating the into air near the craft's hull are able to easily pull the electrons out of their atmospheric atoms and molecules. The hull magnetic fields will apply forces to the negatively electrically charged electrons that will cause SOME of them to spiral away from their respective nuclei and accumulate in the spaces between the now positively electrically charged atmospheric ions they leave behind.

After formation, this plasma then finds itself exposed to magnetic and electric fields emanating from the craft's hull that are "crossed" or perpendicular to each other. Whenever the electrically charged particles of an atmospheric plasma (i.e., negatively charged electrons and positively charged oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, etc. molecules and inert gas atoms) are exposed to crossed magnetic and electric fields near an airborne, massless UFO, these plasma particles will then be moved at HIGH velocity at right angles to the planes defined by the crossed fields via what is known as "Lorentz force" which is named after the 19th century physicist who discovered it.

Through his controls, the pilot of an airborne, massless UFO can SELECTIVELY adjust the strengths and polarities of the magnetic and electric fields that penetrate the highly ionized plasma boundary layer that surrounds his craft's hull and thereby force this layer to flow at various velocities and in different directions around the hull. Amazingly, the plasma can be made to flow at velocities of up to tens of THOUSANDS of miles per hour around the hull of a smaller UFO that uses the plasmadynamic mode of propulsion and this will result in the craft attaining the same speed of travel even in the lower levels of a planet's atmosphere. For a far more detailed treatment of the plasmadynamic mode of propulsion used by most smaller UFO's the reader should study the author's article titled "A UFO Propulsion Primer"

One can imagine that the smaller scout craft and their mothership carrier that remains high in a planet's upper atmosphere stay in constant communication with each other. Because of the difficulty of using radio frequency communication when the smaller UFO's are enveloped in rich plasmas, I am convinced that the various sighting reports suggest that our visitors prefer to use OPTICAL, laser based communication systems. These are limited to line of sight use, but are not blocked by plasma.

In most UFO cases, human ground witnesses are only observing the smaller scout craft that have been released from an unseen mothership high in Earth's upper atmosphere. Aside from carrying out some sort of routine exploratory operations, another goal for these smaller massless craft is to locate supplies of FRESH water to replenish the quantities of water vapor that are expelled from their mothership's trusters as this huge carrier craft traverses the vast expanses of space that separate even neighboring star systems. While it is possible for a mothership to directly draw in fresh, distilled water from lower level atmospheric clouds or even from a surface body of fresh water, this method of replenishment greatly increases the risk of hostile encounters with any sentient ground dwelling beings of a planet. It is far safer for a mothership's crew to allow their smaller craft to locate ground supplies of fresh water, pump them aboard the smaller vehicles into storage tanks, and then actually physically return with the water and then transfer it to larger tanks aboard the mothership.

When the mothership is ready to leave a planet it will simply recover its brood of smaller massless craft and, once they and its renewed supply of water are secured, begin moving its huge hull to the extreme limits of a planet's upper atmosphere. A new destination star system is then selected and the vessel's hull thrusters are intermittently engaged so as to point the mothership's nose in the direction of the destination star. The craft's main rear thrusters then begin spraying out heated water vapor and the craft will shortly be free of the relatively heavy drag imposed on its hull by even the very thinly concentrated gases in the upper atmosphere of a planet. Once free of a planet's atmosphere though, the craft's speed will instantly reach hyper-light velocity and it may then exit a solar system in a matter of MINUTES!

In space, the mothership will conserve its nuclear power by supplying its water reserves with just enough thermal energy to keep them from freezing. As was stated earlier in this article, the vessel's rear thrusters are opened and expose heated liquid water to the vacuum of space whereupon the water will vigorously boil and thereby expand to provide the thrust force necessary for hull motion. It may also be necessary to electrically heat the thruster nozzles to prevent their water vapor "exhaust" from condensing on them and clogging them up with ice crystals.

In light of the above material, it is my hope that the reader will understand just how easily extraterrestrial visitation to Earth can be achieved and how the objections to such travel implied by Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity can be readily overcome. In the remainder of this article, I want to treat the many possible reasons that such extraterrestrial visitations to Earth have been and ARE taking place.

We can begin by making a rather obvious assumption concerning extraterrestrial visitation, in general, which is that the larger a mothership is, the greater must be the length of the journey in which it is engaged. For the rare sighting case wherein a cylindrical vessel that is MILES in length is observed, we can probably safely assume that such a craft is traversing the immense distances that separate galaxies. It will contain tens of thousands of extraterrestrial beings, carry huge reserves of ejectable material for propulsion, and be very advanced in its design. It will also be the most heavily defended of motherships and thus be equipped with various laser or particle beam weapons for protection when entering a previously unexplored galaxy. Such weapons are capable of destroying any potentially threatening object that might approach within, perhaps, a hundred miles of the mothership.

These oversized leviathan craft rarely come down low enough in Earth's atmosphere to be observed in detail and their appearance in our skies is merely the result of chance. They come from distant galaxies searching for life supporting planets to colonize which possess no higher sentient beings who might subject their colonies to harassment. As these ships pass the outer regions of our solar system, their long range observational equipment will be able to spectrographically analyze the composition of our atmosphere and detect the presence of life supporting concentrations of oxygen.

Oxygen in a planet's atmosphere most certainly indicates that the planet possesses plant life, but it does not indicate whether or not the planet possesses sentient ANIMAL life. To determine this, these huge craft must enter the planet's upper atmosphere and dispatch smaller craft that will conduct a more detailed reconnaissance. Should these smaller UFO's detect such things as buildings, roads, and surface vehicles, then the mothership will, perhaps after taking on water, recover its smaller craft and quickly exit the planet's solar system.

The motivation for such distant, intergalactic mothership journeys is probably for the purpose of the survival of the extraterrestrial species that conduct them. As I stated in another article (see "An Ultimate Structure for the Multiverse"), galaxies that are beyond the range of our best telescopes (i.e., beyond about 12 BILLION light-years from our Milky Way galaxy) may be involved in a "Big Crunch" process wherein they are being collected together by mutual gravitation with other galaxies to form the "Cosmic Eggs" that will give birth to the next "Big Bang" in their local region of the multiverse. As galaxies there collide and begin the compaction process, background radiation levels in the X-ray and gamma-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum will begin rising. At some point, this radiation will make the existence of life on the surfaces of inhabited extraterrestrial worlds in these doomed galaxies impossible.

With planetary populations that may be in the tens to hundreds of billions, the extraterrestrial species in such galaxies will be desperate to find fresh galaxies nearer the center of the nearest previous local Big Bang to which they can relocate. This process of transplanting their entire planet's population may take generations to accomplish with the most difficult part being the initial finding of a suitable planet in their new host galaxy. Upon establishing themselves, they most likely will have only very limited interactions with their spacefaring neighbors. They will, because of the craft they were forced to develop to accomplish their relocation, be far more technically advanced than their neighbors. They will tend to avoid commerce with their new neighbors that might eventually result in the transfer of weapon technology to them that could eventually threaten the newly relocated extraterrestrial species.

As was previously stated, these distant visitors to the skies of Earth will have little interest in our planet or in humanity. Their mission is mainly one of self-preservation.

The situation changes somewhat when we now consider motherships coming to Earth from other star systems in OUR own galaxy. In these cases, the extraterrestrials involved may only have possessed anti-mass field generator technology for as little as a few tens of thousands of our years. They will have completed the exploration of their home solar systems and are venturing out in their motherships to map and explore the remainder of our Milky Way galaxy. Their primary goal is exploration, not colonization. It is these humanoid extraterrestrials whose activities will account for the bulk of the UFO's spotted in Earth's skies and most of the valid abduction cases. They will have a scientific interest in the various flora and fauna of Earth and its oceans as well as the level of technology that our planet's dominant land species has attained. They will, in their smaller scout craft pursue cars and planes or will simply hang stationary over populated areas to observe the flow of human and vehicular traffic.

This second category of extraterrestrial visitors are humanoid beings who will look approximately like humans, but a minority of them may have evolved from other than mammalian ancestors. Thus, this small percentage may have a reptilian appearance if the age of the dinosaurs on their home world was not disrupted by the cataclysm of an immense asteroid impact. Or, they may have a distinctly insect-like appearance if some early planetary catastrophe forced both reptiles and mammals into extinction on their home world but allowed insect to survive.

If their physical appearance departs greatly from the mammalian features of human beings, these extraterrestrials will tend to avoid any sort of interactions with humans. They will not be landing to openly announce their presence and intentions because of the shock effect this action would have on the people of Earth. In the few rare cases werein they abduct a person for examination, they will make every effort to use what telepathic powers they may possess to make the person believe that he is having a dream experience during the adbduction and they will give the abductee a strong telepathic / hypnotic suggestion to induce amnesia about the event after he is released. Such actions indicate that our galactic visitors do follow some sort of moral and ethical code even though we must consider such abductions to be a violation of a person's right to privacy, security, and freedom.

The next and third category of extraterrestrials visiting Earth in their motherships (and in some of the larger UFO's that are capable of ground landing and which do not carry scout craft) is composed of beings who are, most likely, members of some sort of local organization of spacefaring alien civilizations. Like the second category of extraterrestrials visiting Earth, they may have only possessed anti-mass field generator technology for a maximum of up to a few tens of thousands of our years. However, unlike the second group of galactic visitors to Earth, their missions here do not primarily involve exploration. I am of the opinion that their real goal here is to prepare humanity for its eventual and, quite possibly, IMMINENT entry into this hypothesized local extraterrestrial organization of star systems. These extraterrestrials only represent a few percent of the valid UFO sighting on file, yet unlike the first two catagories of extraterrestrials, these local visitors will have maintained an ongoing surveillance of Earth and our solar system for several tens of thousands of our years.

We can imagine that around twenty to thirty thousand years ago there were only less than a million early humans beings occupying our planet. With their evolved frontal lobes and upright postures, these ancestors of ours distributed themselves into small scattered colonies or tribes that were mainly located in a swathe of territory that stretched from eastern Africa, through the Middle East, and into northern India although they were beginning to branch off into eastern Europe and Asia. Their lives were ones that were filled with a daily struggle for survival against natural predators and other local groups of humans who would compete for limited resources of food and water. At this vulnerable point in human cultural development, the entire future of the human race could have been terminated by single mutated virus capable of causing a planetary epidemic. In these times there were no writtten languages, only primitive spoken languages. Technology consisted almost wholly of that needed to fabricate simple items like knives, spears, and bows and arrows. Additionally, these early humans were capable of constructing simple huts and boats.

Seeing how very fragile humanity was, it is possible that the local organization of spacefaring aliens which we may soon be joining, decided to send motherships to Earth to evaluate the situation and determine if and in what form assistance might be required.

For these missions, it is logical to assume that, in order to minimize shock, beings were selected who would appear as human as possible in their facial features and body structures. Even so, the sudden appearance of their UFO's in the skies of Earth must have created great fear and awe when first sighted by early humans. However, as these events were witnessed on a routine basis, humans would eventually have their fear replaced by curiosity. Finally, face to face encounters with the operators of the landed craft would occur with the beginning of communication taking place. This communication would be conducted exclusively via telepathy since this process mainly utilizes universal mental images to transfer information between minds.

Perhaps these ancient encounters were used by the extraterrestrial visitors to impart simple knowledge to early humans about the nature of the cosmos and mankind's place in it, counting systems and geometry, mechanical principles, hygiene, and moral and ethical principles. To make sure that this knowledge would not be used by any one group of humans to dominate others, an effort would have been made to deliver it to as many of the early human groups as possible.

I do not consider it out of the realm of the possible that these early extraterrestrial interventions on the behalf of humanity may also have involved some degree of genetic modification of the human groups contacted. Perhaps certain individuals with survival enhancing traits were encouraged to reproduce abundantly. Or, the human genome was artificially modified to produce offspring of superior size and intelligence that would become natural leaders of their small groups of people and thereafter pass their genetic enchancements on to future generations. Certain genetic modifications may have allowed a small number of humans to develop powerful paranormal abilities as they grew up. These rare people would have strong telepathic abilities and could serve as intermediaries between the extraterrestrials and the bulk of humanity. These genetically enhanced humans would NOT be encouraged to reproduce because their genetic gifts might pose a danger to the survival of humanity if casually passed into the human gene pool and then misused on a large scale. Individuals with these paranormal "gifts" would become the miracle workers in early humans societies and help keep early humans aware of the teachings of the extraterrestrails during the intervals between the arrival of their motherships.

Such visitations, although intially frequent, may have eventually tapered off to once every few centures or so at which times an airborne survey of the distribution, populations densities, and technical development of humanity would be conducted. The results of these periodic evaluations would then be used to decide what further assistance, if any, would be rendered.

Admittedly, the proof of such ancient benevolent extraterrestrial visitations to our Earth is weak. There are the legends and myths of primitive peoples worldwide that, on a whole, suggest ancient conduct with "sky gods" who acted as great teachers. The best proof, however, may be the various petroglyphs and cave paintings that date back tens of thousands of years and show what appear to be airborne and landed saucers in proximity to human beings. Sometimes the objects in these depictions that might be extraterrestrial craft are surrounded with a glow, appear to emit lightning bolts or rays, and sometimes are shown landed and resting on landing gear!

This finally brings us up to modern times and we must consider what might be the significance of the dramatic increase in UFO sightings since about the middle of the twentieth century. This event, I believe is designed to achieve a variety goals simultaneously.

Because of World War II, several of the major warring governments of Earth began applying newly discovered concepts in the then rapidly advancing field of nuclear physics to the development of aerial bombs which would use the immense quantities of energy that are released when the atomic nuclei of certain isotopes of the metals uranium and plutonium undergo a fission or splitting process. These weapons were finally developed, tested, and then used at the very end of the global conflict. For DECADES after the end of the world war in 1945, these nuclear devices continued to be tested and their power was greatly enchanced during the 1950's when it was discovered that the millions of degrees of temperature they produce could be used to kindle another kind of nuclear reaction that involves the fusion or joining of the atomic nuclei found in certain isotopes of the lighter elements of hydrogen and lithium. The resulting "H-bombs" that were subsequently produced are on the order of 1000 times more powerful that the early atomic bombs used to destroy the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

When these early nuclear devices were detonated in Earth's atmosphere, they produced a phenomena that came to be known as an "electromagnetic pulse" or "EMP". As the name implies, this is a single, intense electric and magnetic field pulse that expands out at light velocity from the exploding nuclear bomb as the chain reaction process in it releases incredible quanities of X and gamma radiation. These radiations convert the bomb's materials into a violently expanding sphere of super-hot, electrically charged plasma particles (the temperature of this plasma is in the tens of MILLIONS of degrees Fahrenheit). The bomb does most of its local damage by a combination of infrared radiation that ignites flamable structures and neutron particle radiation that damages the genetic material of living organisms. Further local structural damage is achieved by the ground and atmospheric shock wave associated with the detonation. However, the electromagnetic pulse of the blast is so intense that it can induce massive electrical current flows in electronic equipment that is located tens of miles away from the epicenter of the nuclear explosion. Such high current flows can, unless the equipment is specially designed to withstand them, destroy the circuitry they are induced in and render such items as radios, televisions, telephones, computers, radar arrays, and power distribution systems useless.

The powerful electromagnetic pulses released from ABOVE GROUND nuclear detonations are also capable of leaving the Earth's atmosphere and, at light velocity, can eventually leave our solar system as they propagate out into interstellar space. With equipment sensitive enough, it is even possible that they can be detected at a distance of several light-years from Earth which means that, a few years after their initial generation in 1945, they could have been detected by civilizations on the star systems closest to ours in this galaxy.

Perhaps when the initial nuclear electromagnetic pulses of the 1945 detonations had traveled almost two light-years outside of our solar system, they were detected by the crews of the motherships of the local group of spacefaring extraterrestrials and caused great concern among them. It would be obvious to them, upon analyzing the range of frequencies in the pulses, that certain frequencies were missing or reduced in intensity. These missing frequencies would be the ones that would be absorbed as the pulses traveled through an OXYGEN atmosphere. The extraterrestrials would realize that from the nature of a pulse, its frequency distribution, and its direction of propagation that its origin would be Earth. In a very short time thereafter, their motherships would be arriving in our skies to investigate the matter. I believe that it was these early nuclear detonations in Earth's atmosphere that are mainly responsible for the great surge in UFO sightings that occurred in the late 1940's and which define the Modern Era of ufology.

To the local group of spacefaring extraterrestrials, the development of nuclear weapons by humanity must be a kind of "marker" event that signals to them that we are on the verge of being able to develop anti-mass field genrators that will then allow us to engage in practical interplanetary and interstellar space travel. While I believe that the many UFO sightings now taking place worldwide are desinged to assist humans in developing the new technology which will allow us to become full fledged members of their local group, I think that they are very concerned that we might also pose a threat should we suddenly arrive on the interplanetary scene in earthly motherships laden with nuclear weapons. In short, we are being encouraged to develop ourselves technically so we can join them, but we will only be welcome if we can do so peacefully.

To be able to venture into the depths of interstellar space without the fears that might cause us to heavily arm our first crude versions of a motheship, it is important that the people of Earth feel comfortable with the concept of nearby, intelligent extraterrestrial life. Thus, we can expect the number of UFO sightings in Earth's skies to increase in the coming years. These sightings will be bolder and more prolonged which will allow time for videographic recordings to be made. We can expect that the scout craft involved will engage in performance displays that will be intended to give witnesses clues as to how the craft operates.

For example, the famous "falling leaf" motion of a hovering UFO is obviously intended to show witnesses that the craft, while airborne, has experienced a great reduction in mass and weight. Landing gear imprints and footprints associated with ground cases tell us that the craft and its crew, like similar earthly items, ordinarily have mass and weight when not airborne. Craft that execute violent aerobatic maneuvers for witnesses may be indicating that they are immune from the normally destructive inertial forces that would damage or destroy massive objects attempting such actions. The sightings of UFO's near and over military bases and atomic power plants could indicate their ongoing concern that we may eventually take nuclear weapons into space.

At this point the reader may be wondering why our extraterrestrial visitors do not simply openly land, announce their presence, and give us the technology needed to construct fully operational motherships so that we can immediately join their local spacefaring organization. These are all valid questions to which I have, after many years of contemplation, obtained some satisfying answers.

I feel that there are basically TWO reasons why we do not see official extraterrestrial contact with humans and their governments on Earth at this time.

Firstly, we must remember that we are dealing with an ORGANIZATION of local interstellar civilizations that have been interacting with humanity for millenia. They are used to doing things on a long term basis and want to get present day humanity used to their reality on a gradual basis. This ongoing policy of theirs has, especially since 1947, already made the "extraterrestrial hypothesis" for the UFO phenomenon a favorite theme in science-fiction literature and movies. The vast majority of people on Earth who experience or hear about a UFO sighting automatically assume that it is of an extraterrestrial nature. But despite all this, however, if an official landing and contact on Earth were to occur now, it might cause widespread panic and hysteria in most of the people who accept the existence of aliens as highly probable. An idea or concept that extraterrestrials MIGHT exist is one thing, but the REALITY that outer space beings are now HERE on Earth would, at this time, be a little too much for the average human to feel comfortable with.

However, although official contact on Earth is not yet feasible, we can expect the number of UFO sightings to slowly increase during the coming years. More and more high quality, GENUINE video images will be captured by lucky witnesses and, sooner or later, even major powers like the United States will officially acknowledge the reality of the UFO phenomenon. Perhaps at that time the governments of the world will finally release the best of the photographic evidence they have collected over the decades. I predict that if this occurs, the governments of Earth will be under considerable pressure to "do something" about the UFO phenomenon. This "something", however, will not be the development of weapon systems to shoot down saucers, but, rather, will be whatever research is necessary for humanity to be able to DUPLICATE the marvelous craft possessed by our extraterrestrial visitors so that we can feel like we are on an EQUAL level with them. People will start to DEMAND that we construct our own earthly motherships so that WE can make contact with them!

This scenario is, I am convinced, exactly what the local group of spacefaring extraterrestrial civilizations is hoping for. Official contact WILL eventually take place, but it will be HUMANITY which will initiate it, not the extraterrestrials. By then we will have had decades of interaction with the UFO phenomenon during which time the extraterestrials, generally, will not have displayed "hostile intent". Although they may be different from us in terms of genetics and origins, they will be perceived as embracing what humans usually consider the highest moral and ethical principles. When we finally contact them in space, we will, therefore, be less inclined to be carrying nuclear weapons to the meeting!

The SECOND reason we do not see official contact on Earth at this time is because the extraterrestrials know that they would then be pressured to either reveal the technology of their craft immediately or even provide ready made craft to humanity for use in solving our many current problems on this planet. Although such a "gift" might seem like a very benevolent gesture on the part of our visitors, in the long run, it might not be the best thing for us. It would mean that as a planetary civilization, humanity had to be "helped" technologically to be able to reach the stars. Rather than being equal members of the local organization of spacefaring civilizations, Earth would be a kind of "special" case that had to have "outside" help to join. The feelings of planetary inferiority that this would inevitably engender might further weaken our remaining spirit of independence and self-reliance to the point where we would start looking to extraterrestrial technological "gifts" to solve all of our problems. Clearly, this is not the best destiny for humanity.

Finally, I can end this article by stating that I look forward to the day, hopefully in my lifetime, when the first earthly motherships complete the exploration of our solar system. Perhaps on one of the larger moons of Jupiter or Saturn, Earth's astronauts will observe what appear to be a series of interconnected domes that are clearly artificial in nature.

After directing our planet's first mothership into the moon's atmosphere, its crew will launch smaller massless scout craft that will then land near the domes. Our scout craft will then deactivate their anti-mass field generators and settle into the frozen surface as they and their crews regain their normal masses and moon gravity weights. A few moments later, human astronauts wearing heated, pressurized spacesuits will emerge from these small craft and slowly make their way across the moon's surface until they stand before a heavy metallic airlock hatch located in the side of the nearest dome. After a few more minutes of radio communications amongst themselves, a vibration beneath their feet will suddenly be felt as they notice that the airlock hatch is slowly opening!

Upon entering the dome, our astronauts will each be aware that what transpires in the coming minutes will be of vital importance to the destiny of humanity...

(Note: this article completed September 17th, 2003)