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A UFO Propulsion Primer

by Kenneth W. Behrendt

The topic of UFO propulsion systems and their secondary effects on their local environments (including any extravehicular living organisms present therein) is a complex one. After studying this topic for several decades from the time I was a teenager, I was finally able to obtain satisfactory solutions to the mysteries of how UFO's manage to apparently defy our known laws of gravity and inertia, how they could produce unusual secondary effects on a witness and his environment, and how these craft could travel in great excess of the normally limiting velocity of light so as to reduce interstellar transit times to a very small fraction of a UFO crew member's lifespan. These answers did not come easily and their exact descriptions do require a mathematical treatment in order to understand in depth. However, in this article, I will attempt to give the reader a highly condensed, yet accurate, qualitative summary of what is slowly emerging as the only physically viable theory for rationalizing the UFO phenomenon since it caught the public interest worldwide starting in the year 1947. But, before this qualitative overview is given, I should provide the reader with some of the details of my early interest in this unsual topic and show how they led to the annunciation of the physical principles that form the basis of the new UFO propulsion / secondary effects theory.

During the 1960's I became an avid reader of the then widely available mass market paperback books that dealt with the UFO phenomena. These were produced then because, during the late 1940's and throughout the 1950's, there had been widely reported sightings of UFOs across the United States and other parts of the world. The subject began to be depicted in the movies and popular literature. Beside there being then ongoing, open government investigations of the subject, reports were even beginning to surface of people who had apparently been abducted by aliens and taken aboard their craft! For close to a decade, tapering off in the mid-1970's, I probably read about 200 books on the subject and became firmly convinced that UFO's were real, PHYSICAL objects and that they, most likely, were exactly what they appeared to be...extraterrestrial air and spacecraft, operated by extraterrestrial beings, which used some sort of advanced technology in order to deliver the astounding performance capabilities they demonstrated in the various sighting cases. I was, however, well aware that, perhaps, only a small percentage (less than 10%) of the cases I read about were the "real thing". In most cases, I was inclined to agree with the skeptics of the subject who claimed that the reported sightings were either misidentified natural or conventional phenomena, hoaxes, or even hallucinations. However, in that small percentage of sightings that I felt comfortable accepting as real, the factors involved all seemed to add up to something of an extraterrestrial nature having been present.

The next set of problems I began to ponder was just how it could be possible for a metallic craft, which should weigh tens or even hundreds of tons, to be able to do such things as hover without any apparent means of propulsion, travel through the denser lower portions of Earth's atmosphere without producing turbulance or a "sonic boom" even though their velocities as indicated on radar might be thousands of miles per hour, and how they could make voyages across the immense gulfs of space that separate even neighboring star systems in conveniently short time periods? These were very difficult questions associated with the UFO phenomenon that had caused many professionally trained scientists to abandon the topic and to merely dismiss it all as the produce of hoaxes, delusions, or mass hysteria. I found that it took a kind of stubbornness to pursue the subject in the face of such official denial. I am glad I had this stubbornness because, after several decades of additional research, it did finally lead me to some satisfactory answers which I can now share with the reader.

It was during the mid-1970's that I made the acquaintance of a Mr. Tom Benson who lived in the Trenton, New Jersey area. At the time, I had a friend who had reported to me an incident he had experienced which involved a mysterious "missing time" period of about two hours. I had, in turn, reported this to one of the major UFO research organizations then in existence and they dispatched Tom Benson to investigate it since he was one of their field investigators for the state of New Jersey. Although the results of the possible abduction investigation were inconclusive, I was impressed with Tom's interest in and knowledge of the UFO subject and found myself making quarterly visits to his home near Trenton to spend a day discussing the latest UFO cases. Like me, he was a collector of the UFO literature, but his collection was far more extensive and included not only paperback titles, but the latest hardcover editions and hard to obtain foreign journals and magazines devoted to the subject. Even more beneficial to my reseach efforts was his willingness to let me borrow about a half a dozen of the latest UFO books on each of my visits which I would quickly read and return to him via parcel post. Much of the material he supplied me with was of a far more detailed and technical nature than I was getting with my inexpensive mass market library of the subject.

With Tom Benson's kind assistence, the pace of my research into UFO technology increased and I began to make major progress in understanding its true nature. I remember that there was a day, sometime in the mid-1970's when I found myself in the Main Library located in Elizabeth, New Jersey and browsing my way through a shelf of books in the "Science and Technology" section. I came upon a book on the topic of "plasmadynamics" and, although I was then a graduate student studying chemistry and would have little use for this topic as a chemist, I decided to flip through the text anyway. Suddenly I found a nice illustration that showed what happens to ELECTRICALLY CHARGED particles when they are simultaneously exposed to crossed or perpendicular electric and magnetic fields that penetrate the volume of space where they are located. They experience forces acting on them that make them RAPIDLY move at right angles to the plane defined by the crossed electric and magnetic fields. However, the trajectories of the charged particles are not simple straight lines, but, rather, the particles are forced to trace out tiny arcs which are called "cycloids" and they follow a "cycloidal trajectory". The forces acting on the charged particles to make them move in such a strange manner are know as "Lorentz forces" after the physicist who discovered this effect. The motion of each charged particle is somewhat similar to that which might be made by a rubber ball that is thrown down a street and simultaneously bounces along while it moves down the street.

Just below the illustration I viewed that day, there was an equation that accompanied the illustration. It turns out that the cycloidal motion of the charged particles due to the Lorentz forces acting on them causes them to emit a form of electromagetic radiation known as "cyclotron radiation". The equation below the illustration allowed one to calculate the frequency of this radiation in terms of the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields involved as well as the charges and MASSES of the electrically charged particles that emit the cyclotron radiation. It was at this point that I had a revelation!

I noticed that the frequency of the cyclotron radiation could be in the visible or "optical" region of the electromagnetic spectum IF the masses of the charged particles were small enough. Ordinarily, the masses of the kinds of charged particles found in, say, an atmospheric plasma would, although they are small, only allow for cyclotron radiation frequencies in the invisible microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, IF one could reduce the masses of electrically charged atomspheric plasma particles down to ALMOST zero, then one could obtain cyclotron radiation frequencies in the infrared, VISIBLE, ultraviolet, or even x-ray regions of the spectrum. Then, even if only modestly strong crossed electric and magetic fields were used, the plasma with its greatly lowered mass could be made to flow at enormous velocities at right angles to the planes defined by the crossed or perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. It was at the moment of this realization that I understood about 50% of just how UFO's operate!

I realized that UFO's, WHEN IN FLIGHT, must actually be massless; that is, they then have neither gravitational nor inertial mass. This effect must also extend out somewhat into the region of atmospheric gases that immediately surrounds the craft's outer metallic hull. Thin capacitor plates and electromagnetic coils located just beneath the craft's hull would be activated and would then project CROSSED electric and magnetic fields out into the nearly massless layer of air nearest the NONFERROUS metallic hull. Perhaps the nearly massless air molecules there would encounter the magnetic fields near the hull and immediately be torn apart to envelope the UFO in a very rich layer of highly ionized plasma. As soon as this virtually massless plasma had formed, it would feel powerful Lorentz forces acting on it that would force it to flow around the craft's hull WITHOUT touching it! As plasma piled up on the trailing side of the UFO, the craft would immediately take off in the opposite direction at velocities that might be in the thousands or tens of thousands of miles per hour! By adjusting the strengths and polarities of the electric and magnetic fields projected out into the plasma layer surrounding the craft, its pilot could INSTANTLY control its motion. He would be able to accelerate from a standstill to a velocity of thousands of miles per hour in a FRACTION of a second, then just as quickly come to a complete stop. While in straight line motion, he could nearly instantly execute a right angle turn! All of these violent aerobatic maneuvers would apply NO inertial forces to either the craft or its crew that might damage them because both the craft and its crew would be completely massless in flight. While all this was going on, the UFO might emit a bright colored glow as the nearly massless, highly ionized atmospheric plasma near its hull emitted VISIBLE cyclotron radiation as its ions moved with submicroscopic cycloidal trajectories at right angles to the planes defined by the crossed electric and magnetic fields projected into them by the UFO's hidden propulsion equipment. I realized that this simple model, in essence, solved about 50% of the mystery of how UFO's operate. But I still wondered just how such a craft could cancel its normal mass so it would no longer display the normal gravitational and inertial properties that result from having that normal mass.

I had reached a point in the late 1970's when I felt I understood enough about UFO propulsion to begin writing short articles on the subject. About this time, my friend Tom Benson began publishing his own UFO research journal titled The Sixth Quark Journal and some of my earliest writing efforts appeared in his excellent publication. I was, however, still bothered by the missing 50% of the UFO propulsion enigma that I did not possess. Slowly it dawned on me that the reason that I could not explain just how UFO's and their occupants managed to negate their masses when in flight was because, in the final analysis, I did not know exactly WHAT caused gravity and inertia! As a physical science major in graduate school at an Ivy League, East Coast university, I was, of course, familiar with the work of Newton and Einstein with regard to gravitation. The problem, however, was that their work only provided one with mathematical DESCRIPTIONS of gravity and inertia which are viewed as properties that define the magnitude of a local physical mass that is producing these properties. No matter how much one studies this subject with CONTEMPORARY physics, one is never able to really understand HOW a physical mass creates the gravitational and inertial effects associated with it. In Newton's classic work on gravitation, he wrote, in Latin, "Non fingo hypotheoses" (which translates into the English "I frame no hypotheses") when he reached the point in his treatise that seemed to require an explanation for the cause of gravity. I found that 300 years later, in the late 1970"s, Newton's failure to explain the cause of gravity still persisted! I also realized that if I was to have any hope for a satisfying explanation of how the builders of UFO's managed to artificially control the masses of their craft in flight so as to thereby control the gravitational and inertial properties associated with those masses, then I would, literally, need to develop an entirely NEW theory of gravity and inertia to account for these well-known properties of mass. Little did I know, during the late 1970's, that developing this new theory and successfully applying it to UFO propulsion and secondary effects would take me almost another TWENTY YEARS!

Of the many books that Tom Benson allowed me to "check out" from his archival library was one by a British author named Leonard G. Cramp titled UFO's and Anti-Gravity: A Piece for the Jigsaw. Cramp was an engineer and had studied UFO's during the 1950's. Although I had been previously unfamiliar with his work, I found it particularly interesting that he believed that whatever method was employed by UFO's to levitate themselves would probably be identical to the processes occurring in the few rare cases wherein human beings managed to levitate themselves. I was aware that this phenomenon, also known as "autolevitation" had been observed in many mystics and saints over the centuries and, after reading Cramp's book, I decided to research the topic in depth. Not only did the historical references to it convince me that the phenomenon was genuine, but it became apparent to me that the effect was due to a virtually total loss of mass of the levitator's body and that something was happening in the subject's CIRCULATORY system to produce this effect. That is, somehow, the rapid flow of blood THROUGHOUT the subject's body was somehow negating their normal mass and the gravitational and inertial properties associated with it.

At this point, the only explanation for autolevitation that made sense to me was that, perhaps, the iron bearing hemoglobin molecules contained within the subject's red blood cells could, under certain physiological conditions, turn each microscopic red blood cell into a tiny magnet. All of the trillions of red blood cells within a levitator's circulatory system would then align their magnetic fields so that a continuous magnetic field would be established throughout the subject's body. This magnetic field would also be in a state of more or less constant motion ALONG its magnetic field lines. Next, I theorized that the rapid flow of blood through the subject's blood vessels would cause negatively charged electrons to be pulled off of the red blood cells and to be deposited onto the vessel walls. This action would result in an electric field being established between the red blood cells and the vessel walls. Thus, a levitator's blood vessels actually contained a moving magnetic field, a kind of "magnetic current", that, at ALL points in the circulatory system, moved AT RIGHT ANGLES to an electric field. Apparently, this unusual situation produced a NEW field effect that directly negated whatever field effect was produced by mass which was responsible for the effects of gravity and inertia that we associated with that mass! The result would be a rarely observed event in which a human being could, for a brief time (usually measured in minutes), become buoyant due to a great loss of body weight and slowly rise into the air because they no longer felt the relentless force of gravity acting on them.

I realized that, when two masses are drawn together by gravitational force, this force must be due to the INTERACTION of TWO SEPARATE fields that issued from EACH mass. When a human subject autolevitates, the NEW field effect emanating from their circulatory system would neutralize the normally present field produced by their bodily mass and this latter field would then no longer exist to interact with the normally present field produced by the mass of the Earth. It was also apparent to me that the force of inertia, which we associate with an ACCELERATING mass, is also a byproduct of the field normally produced by a physical mass and that the new field effect being produced in an autolevitator's body would be able to neutralize any inertia of that body as well. This explained the few levitation cases wherein the subjects, while airborne, were easily pushed about by observers.

With simple explanations for autolevitation, gravity, and inertia, I began to explore the topic of UFO propulsion in greater depth in my early writings on the topic. In the early 1980's I found out about a newly started UFO organization called "The Scientific Bureau of Investigation". It was headquartered in nearby Staten Island, New York and was directed by an ardent ufologist named Mr. Pete Mazzola. He was involved in law enforcement and apparently wanted to create an organization that would be as thoroughly scientific in investigating UFO's as the Federal Bureau of Investigation was in investigating crime. He produced a monthly magazine titled The SBI Report and it was not long before I was having an article on UFO propulsion technology or related secondary effects published in it on a monthly basis! He needed quality content and I needed an outlet for the torrential output of ideas I had concerning the subject.

Finally, I was beginning to see the missing 50% of the UFO propulsion mystery more clearly. I had begun to refer to the field normally associated with a physical mass as its "mass field" and the new type of field I learned about from my research into the paranormal phenomenon of autolevitation as the "anti-mass field". I envisioned both fields to consist of a sort of NONelectromagtic radiation that emanated or radiated away from their sources at the velocity of light. A UFO lost its gravitational and inertial properties and thereby effectively became massless in flight because the mass field produced by its metallic structures as well as the bodies of its crew members was completely cancelled out by the anti-mass field produceed by its propulsion equipment. Inside the metal hull of a UFO, I reasoned, there must be a device for producing the anti-mass field that would be necessary to allow a UFO to display its astonishing flight capabilities. I referred to this hypothetical device as an "anti-mass field generator".

Although I was later to discover that there are several different types of anti-mass field generators that can be incorporated into a UFO in order to generate its all important anti-mass field, I will only discuss one of the simplest here. It basically consists of an electromechanical device that reproduces the pattern of electric and magnetic fields that are found inside the blood vessels of subject's undergoing autolevitation. To provide a toroidal or ring shaped magnetic field, the device will contain several large diameter (perhaps about 16 feet or so in diameter for a 32 foot diameter discoidal UFO) toroidal electromagnets whose metallic windings carry a heavy current supplied by fuel cells that react hydrogen and oxygen in gaseous form. The core magnetic fields of these toroidal electromagnets are made to move ALONG their field lines by PHYSICALLY rotating the entire structures of the electromagnets. Thus, we can imagine a disc shaped UFO which contains a central occupant section (often located within the "cupola" part of the typical "flying saucer") around which the toroidal electromagnets revolve. The motion of these bearing mounted stacks of toroidal electromagnets would be maintained by small motors whose speed would be optically controlled by the craft's pilot. While these rotating electromagnets can be completely contained within the one piece hull of a UFO, some designs appear to place them into sections of the discoidal craft's outer rim which themselves are made to physically revolve around the craft's central stationary crew section. It is this design option which accounts for the many sightings on record of UFO's with spinning outer rims. We can also imagine that the moving hull sections in such UFO's also contain the tanks of pressurized hydrogen and oxygen gases needed to power the toroidal electromagnets of the vehicle's anti-mass field generator.

Inside the cores of the electrical current carrying windings of each of the toroidal electromagnets described above, one would find a similarly shaped toroidal tubular capacitor. It would consist of a series of CONCENTRIC toroidal metallic foil plates each of which was separated from the nearest toroidal plate inside and outside of it by a concentric toroidal layer of insulating material with a high dielectric strength. During operation of the UFO's anti-mass field generator, electrons will be removed from HALF of the toroidal plates and forced onto the other half of these plates. The toroidal plates are arrranged, just as in a standard tubular capacitor, so as to alternate their electrical charge polarity. If the outermost plate was negatively charged, then the next inner one would be positively charged, then the next inner one negatively charged, then the next inner one positively charged, and so on until one reached a metal ring at the very core of the toroidal tubular capacitor which, if the number of plates is even, would be positively charged. Thus, when each of the craft's toroidal tubular capacitors was electrically charged, they would contain ELECTRIC field lines whose directions would, within each toroidal electromagnet, be EVERYWHERE at RIGHT ANGLES to the toroidal electromagnet's MAGNETIC field lines.

With the above details in mind, it is now possible to give a fairly accurate description of how a typical UFO might operate. Imagine that the craft is saucer shaped and about 32 feet in diameter. It is resting on the ground on four extended legs, each of which has a foot wide circular pad on its end. A four member crew can enter a central occupant section via a retractable ladder and airtight hatch near the center of the bottom surface of the vehicle. BEFORE the UFO's propulsion system is activated, the craft and its crew might have a normal weight of 20 to 40 THOUSAND pounds.

Now let us imagine that the crew has decided to take their craft for a flight. They climb aboard the landed craft, retract its ladder, and secure the inner airtight hatch. They then seat themselves and secure themselves to their chairs by means of light restraints. The crew member who acts as pilot then makes a few adjustments at a small control panel and immediately carbon dioxide scrubbers and other environmental equipment are activated so as to maintain a comfortable atmosphere within the vehicle. Crew members may directly view the exterior of the craft through windows or portholes installed in its one inch thick pure magnesium hull, or they may utilize images gathered from an array of viewing lenses embedded in the hull. If the latter are used, then the images from each lens may be carried via fiber optic cables to the central occupant section where they are used to create a full 360 "wraparound" view of the craft's exterior which is then displayed on the walls and ceiling surrounding the crew members. Thus, they can have the illusion of "open cockpit" flight while continuously being protected by the craft's thick metal hull.

The pilot, just before liftoff, will press a few more buttons and begin the flow of electrical current through the windings of the sets of toroidal electromagents located in the craft's anti-mass field generator. This action will surround the central occupant section with a number of toroidal electromagnetic fields. The electrical current for the toroidal electromagnets will come directly from banks of fuel cells that react hydrogen and oxygen gases drawn from tanks located within the hull. Next, the pilot will press another button and high voltage electrical current will then charged the toroidal tubular capactor plates inside of each of the anti-mass field generator's toroidal electromagnets. With the necessary magnetic and electric fields established within the craft's anti-mass field generator, there is one more operation required before the vehicle can be flown.

At this point the craft's anti-mass field generator is still not producing and radiating any anti-mass field radiation and the craft and its crew still have their normal mass, weight, and inertial properties. When the pilot throws an additional switch, this situation will begin to change. This switch activates small drive motors whose function is to cause the various toroidal electromagnets and their contained toroidal tubular capacitors to begin revolving around the centrally located occupant section. Several toroidal electromagnets may be attached to each other in a stacked formation and have their common motion guided by the same track around the center of the craft. To prevent a torsional reaction of the hull and other gyroscopic effects from occurring, we can safely assume that half of the craft's toroidal electromagnets will revolve in one direction around the center of the craft and the other half of the craft's toroidal electromagnets will revolve in the other direction.

With this added element of motion, the anti-mass field generator now contains magnetic fields which move ALONG their magnetic field lines at RIGHT ANGLES to strong electric fields and the result of this action is the emission of anti-mass field radiation and the creation of an anti-mass field around the device. As the speed of rotation of the anti-mass field generator's toroidal electromagnets and their contained tubular capacitors is increased, the intensity of the emitted anti-mass field radiation will increase and we can also say that the intensity of the anti-mass field has increased. Since this new field effect directly negates the normal mass field and its mass field radiation that gives the craft and its crew their normal mass, weight, and inertial properties, then, as the speed of rotation of the toroidal electromagnets and their tubular capacitors is slowly increased by the pilot, the mass, weight, and inertial properties of the craft and its crew will gradually dwindle to zero! As this happens, the only sound that may be heard aboard the vehicle would be the faint vibration of the drive motors in the hull as they maintain the constant motion of the toroidal electromagnets and tubular capacitors of the craft's anti-mass field generator.

The pilot can now carefully adjust the intensity of emitted anti-mass field radiation until his craft and its crew are massless. All will seem normal aboard the ship except that a crew member might notice that, if he picks up an object and releases it in midair, it will remain hanging there because it has neither mass nor weight. Indeed, if a child outside was to approach the craft and reach the hull, then he could easily flip the entire vehicle and its crew over with one push of his hand!

The pilot can now slightly intensify his craft's anti-mass field beyond the amount needed to render it massless. When this happens an interesting result will be achieved: the craft's anti-mass field will negate ALMOST all of the mass of the atmospheric gas molecules near the surface of the hull. If the pilot activates sets of electromagnets attached to the inside surfaces of portions of the hull, then magnetic fields can be made to penetrate the nonmagnetic hull and extend out into the layer of almost massless air near the outer surface of the hull. Air molecules that are simultaneously exposed to BOTH anti-mass field radiation AND a magnetic field will, as was indicated earlier in this article, experience a sudden reduction in the electrostatic forces of ATTRACTION that exist between subatomic particles within them of OPPOSITE electrical charge such as those forces of attraction between negatively charged electrons and positively charged atomic nuclei. As this happens, the nearly massless air molecules near the craft's surface will quickly lose electrons and become ionized. The effect of this will be to immediately surround the discoidal vehicle in a rich, virtually massless, boundary layer of plasma. If the mass of the plasma particles near the hull is low enough, then they will spiral around the magnetic field lines penetrating them from the hull and emit VISIBLE gyratron radiation in a mosaic pattern that indicates the locations of the electromagnets hidden beneath the craft's hull. If the plasma boundary layer experiences too great a reduction in mass, then it might emit gyratron radiation in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The metal hull of the craft would, of course, protect the crew from this ionizing form of radiation, but an unprotected person standing outside the vehicle could be exposed to biologically hazardous levels of ultraviolet radiation which could produce a severe skin burn. If the plasma boundary layer lost enough mass and the magnetic fields near the hull were strong enough, then it might be possible to produce gyratron radiation in the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This, obviously, is undesirable because it would pose a severe health risk to outside witnesses as well as the craft's crew.

At this point the crew members are seated inside of a massless craft that is surrounded in a plasma boundary layer which is visibly glowing near much of the hull's upper and lower surfaces. In order to achieve liftoff, the pilot now presses another button and thin capacitor plates attached to, but ELECTRICALLY INSULATED FROM, the inside surfaces of the craft's hull are electrically charged with high voltage current. This results in regions of OPPOSITE electrical charge being INDUCED in the metal of the hull located near each attached capacitor plate. These capacitor plates will be arranged between the hull's electromagnets, which are also attached to the inner surface of the hull, so that the ELECTRIC fields from the regions of electrical charge they inducee on the hull are able to extend out into the nearly massless boudary layer of plasma near the craft's hull AND penetrate the magnetic fields there from the hull electromagnets. If the hull electromagnets and capacitor plates are carefully arranged, they will cause portions of the plasma boudary layer to be exposed to CROSSED or PERPENDICULAR magnetic and electric fields. The instant that this happens, the nearly massless plasma particles there will rapidly flow at high velocity at right angles to the planes defined by the crossed magnetic and electric fields. As was seen earlier in this article, this was due to the effects of Lorentz forces acting on the plasma particles. In this case, the submicroscopic cycloidal trajectories of the nearly massless charged plasma particles, as they move at right angles to the planes defined by the magnetic and electric fields pentrating them, can cause them to emit CYCLOTRON radiation in the VISIBLE portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

We can imagine that the craft's pilot has a joystick control mounted near his seat that allows him to very precisely control the intensities of the magnetic and electric fields that are penerating the plasma boundary layer near the hull. This allows precise control of the velocity of plasma flow AROUND the hull which actually almost takes place without the plasma touching the hull (this detail virtually eliminates aerodynamic drag on and heating of the hull). With the simplest movement of his wrist, the pilot might be able to adjust this plasma flow from a few miles per hour to tens of THOUSANDS of miles per hour! He can also just as easily and quickly adjust the DIRECTION of plasma flow around his craft's hull with the joystick which in this case controls which sets of hull electromagnets and capacitor plates are energized within the craft's closed hull. He can, therefore, vitually instantly change the velocity and direction of plasma flow around his vehicle's hull.

Let us imagine that the massless craft's pilot presses the joystick in such a way that plasma flows at a few miles per hour from the upper surface of the ship's hull, around its circular outer rim, and down toward the center of its bottom hull surface. Plasma will then begin to literally "pile up" under the vehicle and there will be greater air pressure on the bottom surface of the craft than on its upper surface. The massless vehicle will immediately respond by rising at a rate of a few miles per hour into the air. The pilot then presses a buttom and the craft's landing gear are quickly retracted into the bottom hull as covers slide into place to conceal the openings they extended through. After a minute or so of this motion, the craft reaches an altitude of about two hundred feet and the crew relaxes for a moment to enjoy the view. On the walls of the central occupant section, the four person crew can enjoy a panoramic view of the surrounding countryside. Perhaps small auxiliary view screens on the pilot's control panel allow him to view in the directions directly above and below the craft. These views, unnecessary for lateral flight, might only be used for takeoffs and landings.

Now the pilot decides to rapidly ascend. After checking his auxiliary viewscreen to see that there are is no "traffic" above him, he applies greater pressure to the joystick controlling plasma flow around the craft's outer rim from the upper to lower hull surfaces. This intensifies the crossed magnetic and electric fields extending into the plasma boundary layer from the hull and plasma flow velocity instantly jumps to one THOUSAND miles per hour! The view of the exterior seen my the crew will now shift rapidly and in only ten SECONDS the massless vehicle will have reached an altitude of about 2.78 miles or 14.7 thousand feet. The pilot now stops his ascent and notes that, aside from the rapidly shifting exterior view, the crew felt no inertial forces acting on their bodies during the violent acceleration and deceleration involved in this maneuver. Ground observers of the craft's ascent hear no "sonic boom" produced by its movement. As the hull's exterior magnetic and electric fields push plasma from the top surface of the vehicle to its bottom surface, this plasma achieves a state of "laminar flow" whereby virtually no aerodynamic drag or sound producing turbulance is created. As the craft rapidly aascends, plasma left behind it slowly deionizes, while the air it ascends into is quickly ionized to form fresh plasma near the hull which is then forced to flow around that hull. The massless vehicle literally slips through the air and ground observers may notice that, during motion, its hull is enveloped in a very brightly glowing boundary layer. As was mentioned earlier in this article, this bright visible glow is due to the emission of cyclotron radiation as virtually massless, electrically charged plasma particles move through crossed magnetic and electric fields near the craft's hull.

Now the pilot decides to engage in lateral flight and pushes forward on his joystick. Instantly the appropriate sets of hull elecromagnets and capacitors are energized so that plasma begins rapidly flowing across both the upper and lower hull surfaces of the craft. Pressing the joystick forward intensifies the crossed magnetic and electric fields so that they drive the plasma around the massless craft at a velocity of 50,000 miles per hour and the vehicle is enveloped in an even brighter glow as it streaks across the sky. A ground observer will see it move from horizon to horizon in about 3.6 SECONDS! Perhaps the pilot wishes to land at a location that is diametrically opposite his starting point on the Earth's surface. At the velocity at which he travels over the Earth's surface, this can be accomplished in about 15 MINUTES!

The bright glow of the craft's plasma boundary layer will not interfer with the pilot's view of the craft's exterior because he views his surroundings via hull lenses that are located at points on the hull where plasma is not being driven by Lorentz forces due to the crossed magnetic and electric fields that are external to the hull. Thus, there is no glowing plasma near these lenses to obscure the images gathered from them.

At this point, the reader may be wondering what would be the consequences for the craft and its crew should they collide with an object in our atmosphere while traveling with a velocity of 50,000 miles per hour. Amazingly, the answer is...virtually NOTHING serious will happen to them! One must remember that the craft and crew are massless and therefore possess no momentum. Should the vehicle collide with, say, a mountain, then the craft will either come to an instant stop or be deflected and resume its motion along a new trajectory. The actual thrust that the craft's hull reacts to with its motion (which is due to the small plasma pressure difference between its leading and trailing hull surfaces) is only in the range of a few tens of pounds. Should the craft's motion be suddenly stopped by an obstacle, this low thrust will be applied to the hull, but will be insufficient to damage it. During a collison that stops the craft, the crew members would experience no injurious inertial forces due to instant deceleration, but would just suddenly notice that the external scenery displayed on the viewscreens inside of the central occupant section had stopped shifting. In a deflecting collision, the crew would suddenly see the displayed exterior view instantly shift to a new orientation as the craft's direction of flight changed.

There are some mishaps, however, that could occur to our hypothetical craft in flight that would be catastrophic. We saw earler in this article that the craft's anti-mass field generator consisted of banks of counter revolving toroidal electromagnets and toroidal tubular capacitors that emitted the anti-mass field radiation that the vehicle needed in order to maintain itself and its crew in a continuous state of masslessness during flight. If anything should malfunction so as to decrease the intensity of the craft's anti-mass field, then the craft would regain a small portion of its normal mass that is no longer being neutralized by the less intense anti-mass field radiation emitted by its malfunctioning anti-mass field generator. This gain of mass while airborne will cause the vehicle to stop any lateral motion it might have and to begin slowly sinking in the atmosphere. While sinking, a discoidal craft will display the so-called "falling leaf" motion which is similar to what happens when a styrofoam plate is released from a height. The motion is a alternating series of side to side stalls displayed by an object experiencing a lot of aerodynamic drag as it drops in the atmosphere.

If there is only a partial failure of the craft's anti-mass field generator, then it will be possible for the pilot to compensate for the problem. For example, if only one toroidal electromagnet / tublular capacitor unit fails to produce its share of the anti-mass field radiation required for vehicle and crew masslessness, then the pilot will be able to compensate for this by increasing the output of anti-mass field radiation from the neighboring units in the revolving bank of units containing the malfunctioning one. Before, this adjustment is made, however, a craft with this kind of problem may, aside from sinking toward the ground, begin wobbling badly or even begin precessing like a giant gyroscope! This effect is due to the fact that some of the craft's regained normal mass is now in the nonfunctioning toroidal electromagnet / tubular capacitor unit which is forced to revolve along with the other functioning units in a common bank of such units. The revolving regained mass in the nonfunctioning unit acts like the flywheel in a gyroscope and can make the craft's entire hull wobble or precess.

If there is a complete failure of the craft's anti-mass field generator, then the vehicle AND its crew would instantly regain all of their normal mass, weight, and inertial properties. If airborne when this scenario occurs, they would begin a rapid plunge to the earth's surface that would destroy the craft and kill its crew. Even in this worst case scenario, it might be possible for the crew to survive if the central occupant section could be jettisoned afterwhich it would automatically deploy a number of parachutes to slow its descend to the ground. An emergency ejection system similar to this is used aboard the American made B-1 bomber and has successfully saved the lives of its crews on several occasions.

Now, finally, let us assume that the crew of our hypothetical massless vehicle has reached the location on the opposite side of the earth from its starting point and that the crew wishes to land. If the craft is still at an altitude of 14.7 thousand feet, then the best procedure is to simply use small selective plasma flows around its outer circular rim to orient the discoidal craft's plane so that, if that plane were extended far enough, it would intersect the location on the ground of the desired landing area. The pilot would then fly toward the landing area, greatly reduce velocity when within a fraction of a mile of the site, and adjust his vehicle's attitude when a few tens of feet above the ground so that the plane of the craft's disc was parallel to the ground. At this point, the landing gear of the massless craft would be extended and he would now begin viewing the ground beneath the ship via the hull lens located at the exact center of the lower hull. Then very slight joystick movements would be required to gently nudge the 32 foot diameter hull along until it floated just above the landing spot. Once positioned, the pilot might carefully slow the rotation of the toroidal electromagnet / tubular capacitor units of the craft's anti-mass field generator so they emitted less anti-mass field radiation. As a result, the vehicle would regain a small fraction of its normal mass and weight and slowly sink in the atmosphere until the foot pads of its landing gear made ground contact. Once this had occurred, the craft's still almost fully operational anti-mass field generator could be safely shut down completely. The four crew members would then notice that they again had normal mass and weight and they could open the occupant section's inner hatch, extend the boarding ladder, and exit the craft. Remarkably, they would have completed a trip to the other side of the Earth in, perhaps, about only 20 MINUTES and done so in complete safety and comfort!

Some readers may think that as an alternative method for quickly losing altitude, our hypothetical massless vehicle could just regain some of its normal mass and weight and simply sink down at a controlled rate of descent over the landing area. As was previously mentioned, however, this maneuver is not advisable for discoidal craft because they tend to immediately assume the "falling leaf" descent pattern that makes viewing the landing area below them virtually impossible. This descent mode is useable, however, by nondiscoidal craft such as spherical UFO's and some cylindrical craft that can slightly increase the mass and weight of only one end of their cylindrical hulls.

The reader may be surprised at the detail of the technical aspects of UFO propulsion that I have been able to supply in this article so far, but it is only the very tip of a huge iceberg of discoveries I made and wrote about in the pages of The SBI Report. By the mid-1980's my research had reached a point where even the freely available pages of that, sadly, now defunct publication could not handle my output. I decided in late 1984 that I needed my OWN research journal wherein I could present technical articles based on my latest research and in which I could begin to introduce rigorous mathematical reasoning into the subject. The major problem that I encountered in writing for the then existing UFO publications was that I had to write at a level that would maintain the interest of the general reader who might not have the ability to follow a mathematical analysis of the subject. I, however, wanted to produce material that would appeal to the technically minded reader / researcher. Such material ordinarily would appear in a formal, peer reviewed academic research journal, but I had learned from past experience that the mere appearance of the word "UFO" in an article intended for such a journal GUARANTEED that it would be rejected. Apparently, and sadly, the ridicule factor associated with the topic prevented all but the most determined of the scientific orthodoxy from pursuing it. With my own research journal, I would be my own editor and review board and "we" would make sure that the topic got a fair hearing!

By January of 1985 my first issue was ready for publication. This was the era before the internet as we know it today and the "in" thing at the time was to produce one's own fanzine or "zine", grow a list of subscribers, and then try to maintain a regular publication schedule. Since I did not want to be bothered finding interested subscribers and having to individually mail each one of them each issue, I realized that I needed someone else to act as a reliable advertiser and distributor of my publication. I was very fortunate to obtain the help of Mr. Robert C. Girard who owned the Arcturus Book Service then located in Scotia, New York, USA (and now located in Port St. Lucie, Florida, USA). His business sold used out-of-print books and the latest new books on the UFO subject and I had been sporatically buying books from him for several years before I decided to start my own UFO research journal. He maintained a list of thousands of active buyers of the UFO literature and sent out an updated book catalog to them all every month! We agreed that Arcturus Book Service would be the "authorized" distributor of my quarterly journal and that he would advertise each of my issues as they were published in each of his catalogs. As compensation, he would retain a portion of the cover price of each issue and the rest would be sent to me to pay for the printing costs of the next issue. Having solved the advertising / distribution problem, I was finally free to produce a jounal that contained research in the exact format that I wanted it to appear in.

My quarterly UFO research journal was named AURA which was an acronym for Annals of Ufological Research Advances and each 12 page issue was filled with articles and graphics that explored, in rigorous mathematical detail, some intriguing facet of the UFO enigma. In its pages I eventually explored every aspect of UFO propulsion and came to the conclusion that there were several ways to construct the anti-mass field generator required to render a UFO massless in flight. Additionally, a variety of methods for creating plasma flow around a UFO's hull were presented. I used actual sighting cases and statistical analyses in reaching these conclusions. Eventually, practically all of the secondary effects associated with UFO propulsion systems were rationalized with the slowly evolving "anti-mass field theory". For the first time since the beginning of the "Modern Era" of ufology in 1947, such secondary effects as automobile engine stalling, incandescent lamp dimming, interference with electronic equipment, vehicle glows, and radiation injuries to witnesses were beginning to make sense in terms of the new propulsion theory. Eventually, even the more bizarre phenomena of craft invisibility and interpenetrability yielded to this novel approach to the subject. The anti-mass field theory eventually even went beyond the UFO phenomena and even suggested a new model for our well-known electric and magnetic fields.

During the late 1980's, when I was not busy producing material for The SBI Report or my own journal, AURA, I would sometimes be invited to contribute material to the books of other researchers in the UFO field. My most memorable contribution was to a book titled Phenomenon: Forty Years of Flying Saucers which was copyrighted in 1988 by BUFORA (the British UFO Research Association) and was published in the United States by Avon Books. The book was edited by British researchers John Spencer and Hilary Evans who wanted to produce a collection of articles on various aspects of the UFO phenomenon by an international group of researchers each of whom was considered to be an expert on a different facet of the subject. By an incredible stroke of luck (and a recommendation from Arcturus Book Service), I was selected as the American expert on UFO propulsion.

I produced a rather lengthy, heavily illustrated, article for the editors titled Extraterrestrial UFO's: What They May Be which gave a nice introductory level treatment in which I outlined my then latest research on the subject of UFO propulsion and secondary effects. The reader can well imagine my delight when, upon opening my gratis review copy of Phenomenon, I discovered that my article and a highly detailed, "cut away" illustration of a UFO that I had produced showing its internal propulsion equipment had been placed precisely in the middle of the volume so that they would be the first items most likely to be seen by a potential customer flipping open the book.

Sometime around the year 1990, the anti-mass field theory, as presented in AURA, underwent a quantum leap in its evolution: it made the surprisingly easy transition from being a FIELD model to being a PARTICLE model. By 1990 the anti-mass field theory had been successful in rationalizing every aspect of UFO propulsion and secondary effects that it had been applied to, yet I was starting to become uncomfortable with the theory! It postulated a device called an "anti-mass FIELD generator" which created an anti-mass FIELD or a region around a UFO penetrated by nonelectromagnetic anti-mass FIELD radiation that SOMEHOW managed to neutralized the normal, and also nonelectromagnetic, mass FIELD radiation being emitted from the subatomic particles that composed the atoms in the structures of the craft and the bodies of its crew. Furthermore, an anti-mass FIELD generator used a unique internal configuration of magnetic and electric FIELDS to produce the device's anti-mass FIELD radiation. However, the more I thought about how these various FIELDS were interacting with each other to provide a UFO's propulsion, the more I realized that the field concept approach would never allow me to explain exactly HOW two fields might interact so as to produce a third field and its various effects. In the final analysis, although I knew how UFOs managed to levitate themselves and their crews, I could not describe the ultimate nature of either mass field radiation or anti-mass field radiation because I did not understand the ultimate nature of electric and magnetic fields. If my UFO propulsion theory was going to evolve to its highest state of development, I would need a completely new model for electric and magnetic fields. This seemed an even more daunting task than explaining how ufonauts controlled the gravitational and inertial properties of themselves and their craft! Somewhere about half way through my 24 issues of AURA, the idea for a new PARTICLE model for electric and magnetic fields occurred to me and it would not be long before I was able to describe all of the previously mysterious fields involved in UFO propulsion in terms of an easily visualized PARTICLE model that was very "friendly" to the image seeking mind.

In 1988 the physicist Richard P. Feynman died and I began reviewing some of his research. As a young man he had helped develop the atomic bomb and during the 1940's, with others, pioneered the field of quantum electrodynamics wherein the major concepts of both quantum and relativity theory were fused into a single satisfactory theory. What I found of particular interest, however, was a method he developed of diagramming the interactions that took place between subatomic particles. These have come to be known as "Feynman Diagrams". They fascinated me because they were based on his hypothesis that when two subatomic particles, such as two negatively charged electrons, approach each other, they actually repel each other by exchanging "virtual photons". These virtual photons are just like regular photons of electromagnetic radiation except that they only have a very short existence and function merely to transfer momentum from each electron to the other that it is about to collide with so that the two will deflect away from each other. There are some problems with this approach to describing the properties of electric fields, but I found it very interesting that Feynman seemed to suggest that what classical physics normally considered a FIELD effect might, in reality, be due to PARTICLES (although these "particles" were still made up of electromagnetic waves). Even more interesting to me was the suggestion that the PARTICLES responsible for FIELD effects could be emitted from the subatomic particles (like electrons and protons) that classical physics said were the sources of electric and magnetic fields. Feynman, like myself, saw a need to reach beyond the conceptual limitations of classsical physics and give an easier to visualize PARTICLE basis for electrical and magnetic field effects.

Influenced by the idea that subatomic particles might emit other particles, I began to imagine the electric field around an electron or proton as consisting of a radial distribution of tiny massless virtual particles each of which I called "electric virtual photon" or "EVP" for short. In later theoretical calculations I would show that they were spherical in shape and had a diameter of about 1/50th that of the "classical" electron. It is important to emphasize here that "my" virtual photons ARE NOT the same as those hypothesized by Feynman. My virtual photons (a term I now somewhat regret having used) are not regular photons which are just packets of electromagnetic waves of a certain frequency which have energy and can transfer momentum between subatomic particles. Rather, my virtual photons are massless, ghostlike spherical PARTICLES that I conceive of as having a spin of 1 quantum unit and which, under certain conditions, like regular photons of electromagnetic radiation, can travel at light velocity.

In visualizing a negatively charged electron which is infinitely SEPARATED from a positively charged proton, we can imagine the radial distribution of EVP's around the electron to be arranged so that all of their spin axes point TOWARD the electron. For the proton, we can imagine its radial distribution of EVP's to be arranged so that all of their spin axes point AWAY from the proton. Thus, the tiny arrowheads drawn on the lines that are normally used in diagrams to represent the electric fields around electrically charged particles are still useable with this particle model and can also be considered to represent the directions in which the spin axes of the EVP's around these particles are all pointing. (Note: the reader can imagine each EVP's spin axis to be represented by a tiny arrow within the EVP's spinning spherical body. One can then apply a "right hand rule" to any EVP to detemine in which direction its tiny spin axis arrow was pointing. The rule would be: if one could wrap one's right hand around an EVP's axis of rotation so that one's fingers curled in the same direction as the rotation of the spherical body of the EVP, then the thumb of that right hand would point in the same direction as the arrow used to represent the EVP's spin axis would be pointing)

I further imagined that the EVP's around subatomic particles were not just randomly distributed in space, but would form long chains of EVP's that would stretch all the way from their source particle out into infinite space. The EVP's in the radial array around an electrically charged source particle would assemble themselves into these long chains because of weak attractive forces that exist between any two EVP's in direct contact with each other which have their spin axes aligned and pointing in the SAME direction. Thus, we can imagine the "head" of each EVP's spin axis arrow to be weakly attracted to the "tail" of the spin axis arrow of the next EVP in the chain of EVP's. In this particle based model for the electric field that I developed, any two EVP's always link their spin axes arrows head to tail and never head to head or tail to tail. Perhaps these latter configurations are "forbidden" due to weak repulsive forces that arise in them.

The next step in the development of a particle model for electric fields was to try to visualize how the EVP's surrounding two electrically charged subatomic particles would behave when the particles were brought into proximity.

In the case where two LIKE charged particles such as two electrons or two protons were brought together, their individual arrays of EVP's would intermesh with each other so that the spin axes directions of each array would point in OPPOSITE directions in the space between the two sources of the EVP arrays. The individual arrays would then repel each other and literally bend away from each other and by so doing then transmit forces back to their respective source particles that would push them away from each other. We would then see the LIKE electrically charged subatomic particles move away from each other.

In the case where two OPPOSITELY electrically charged subatomic particles, such as an electron and a proton, were brought into proximity, their individual EVP arrays would intermesh in the space between them so that the spin axes directions of each array would point in the SAME direction in the space between these two sources of EVP arrays. When this happened, the EVP chains from each oppositely charged subatomic particle would tend to merge and form a single array of EVP chains that would stretch from the electron to the proton. Apparently, due to the weak attractive forces between EVP's in a chain of these particles, the electron and the proton would be pulled together.

The next obstacle that I had to overcome was to develop a PARTICLE model for the magnetic field. Since the concept of a chain of EVP's with its "direction" determine by the alignment of the spin axes of individual EVP's within the chain seemed to fit in so nicely with the classical physics convention of representing electric field lines by straight or arcing lines with small arrow heads drawn on them (representing the direction a small positive electrically charged particle would move in the electric field), I decided to try the same strategy with the magnetic field. This time I simply replaced the conventional magnetic field lines used to represent the shape, intensity, and direction of a magnetic field with curving chains of "my" virtual photons (which, once again, are not the same as regular photons of electromagnetic radiation) and called each particle a "magnetic virtual photon" or "MVP" for brevity's sake (and again, as in the case of the naming of the EVP's, I wish I had selected a different name for these particles). I then imagined, for example, that the magnetic field between the north and south pole faces of a "horseshoe" magnet consisted of a bundle of MVP chains that stretched from the north pole to the south pole. In classical physics the "direction" of a magnetic field is taken as the direction a hypothetical NORTH magnetic monopole would move in the magnetic field which would be from the north pole of the horseshoe magnet over to its south pole. In diagrams of magnets showing their magnetic fields, this is usually indicated by placing small arrowheads on the lines representing the magnetic field which are called either "magnetic field lines" or sometimes "lines of magnetic force". I arbitrarily let the directions of the tiny imaginary spin axis arrows inside each MVP within a chain of MVP's going from the north to south pole of a magnet also point in the direction away from the north pole and toward the south pole.

Soon I had a nice particle model for both electric and magnetic fields and then realized that, although named differently, EVP's and MVP's were actually IDENTICAL PARTICLES! I knew that if one had a long line of closely spaced electrons, that it could be pictured as being surrounded by a cylindrical radial array of EVP that would stretch out from the line of these negatively charged subatomic particles to infinity. However, if all of the electrons suddenly started moving TOGETHER at the same velocity and in the same direction ALONG the line of electrons, then the parts of the line's EVP chains nearest the line would suddenly change into MVP's that would form circular chains or rings around the MOVING line of electrons. This strange effect would, as long as the electrons remained in uniform motion, spread at light velocity out toward infinity. If the line of electrons then suddenly reversed direction, the directions of the spin axes of the MVP's in the concentric MVP rings nearest the moving line of electrons would just as quickly reverse directions and this effect would then spread out at light velocity toward infinity. It seemed to me that individual EVP's in the original EVP array of the line of electrons were undergoing simple gyroscopic precession; that is, when their source particles, the electrons, began moving and tried to force the EVP chains to move at RIGHT ANGLES to the directions that their spin axes were pointing in, the EVP's in these chains reacted by precessing so that their spin axes then pointed in a direction that was ninety degrees away from their original direction and at this point they became what I called "MVP's". In essence, a MVP was just a former EVP whose spin axis direction rotated 90 when a force was applied in an effort to move the EVP at right angles to the direction toward which its spin axis was originally pointing.

I considered the above details of EVP's and MVP's to be powerful evidence that electric and magnetic fields were, in fact, composed of minute PARTICLES. In the above example of an oscillating line of negatively charged electrons, we can see that the electromagnetic wave that classical physics considers it to radiate can just be imagined to consist of a cylindrical radial array of EVP that are in a state of "spin axis rotation" (that is, the spherical body of the EVP spins to form one axis AND this spin axis then ALSO rotates around its center). At periodic lengths (which correspond to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radation emitted) along a chain of EVP extending away from the oscillating line of electrons, the EVP at these positions will be synchronized and have their spin axes pointing in the same direction. Furthermore, a particular EVP spin axis orientation will appear to move along a chain of EVP's at light velocity. This effect is similar to the way in which flashing lights appear to move around a movie theater marquee even though individual lightbulbs on the marquee are stationary.

I tried to emphasize earlier in this article where I discussed my study of Feynman's work that my electric and magnetic virtual photons were not the same as regular photons of radiant electromagnetic energy. The distinction between the two should now be crystal clear: regular photons of electromagnetic radiation are actually COMPOSED of EVP's and MVP's!

In recent years I have slowly come around to the belief that EVP's and MVP's are, as the same particle, THE fundamental building block of the universe and are the "ultimate particle" that all earthly particle physicists are now seeking. Oddly enough, whenever they have handled a simple magnet, they have held enormous quantities of that ultimate particle in their hands, but lacked a theory advanced enough to allow them to recognize it! As was seen above, this ultimate particle composes electric fields, magnetic fields, AND electromagnetic energy. I am confident that it will also be seen to be the basic component from which the recently theorized "quarks" are composed. As I previously lamented, I do regret using the words "virtual photon" when naming EVP's and MVP's. Since they are identical particles and may compose the entire cosmos, perhaps they should be called "cosmons". Then again, since they underlie the structural unity between matter and energy, perhaps they should be called "unitons".

At this point, the reader may be wandering what all this discussion of EVP's and MVP's has to do with UFO propulsion and what the connection might be between this hypothesized ultimate particle and the negation of the normal gravitational and inertial properties of a UFO and its crew members. We shall now return to these subjects and what is to follow represents the quantum leap in the evolution of the anti-mass field theory that took placed in the pages of my UFO research journal, AURA, from about 1990 until the 24th and last issue appeared in December of 1994.

We saw previously that EVERY UFO must rely upon a hypothetical device called an "anti-mass field generator" in order to render itself and its crew massless. In this condition they will be able to fly rapidly through a planet's atmosphere free from the effects of gravity and inertia. We saw that such a vehicle's anti-mass field generator consisted of revolving banks of toroidal electromagnets that contain a toroidal magnetic field which is made to move along its magnetic field lines. Furthermore, each toroidal electromagnet also contained a toroidal tubular capacitor whose multiple electrically charged concentric toroidal metallic plates held electric fields at right angles to the toroidal electromagnet's MOVING magnetic field. It was hypothesized that this action then caused the anti-mass field generator to emit anti-mass field radiation which would exit the device and radiate out into the space surrounding the UFO at the velocity of light and that the intensity of this anti-mass field radiation depended upon the velocity as which the magnetic fields at the cores of the toroidal electromagnets moved along their field lines. Outside the UFO, the craft's anti-mass field radiation would combine with and neutralize the normal mass field radiation being emitted from the subatomic particles that composed the atoms of the craft and its crew. Once this effect had started and was SUSTAINED, the craft and its crew would then be rendered massless so that they would no longer possess weight or inertia.

While this scenario is perfectly accurate and suitable as an introduction to the technology utilized in UFO propulsion systems, the early anti-mass field theory approach to propulsion and related secondary effects became far more detailed when I introduced the concepts of the EVP and MVP into the theory. Suddenly, the mystery of how a moving magnetic field could interpenetrate an electric field and produce a NONelectromagnetic radiation (i.e. anti-mass field radiation) that moved off at light velocity at right angles to both the magnetic and electric fields became readily apparent.

With the new particle model for electric and magnetic fields, we see that the anti-mass field generator's toroidal electromagnets are actually filled with MVP PARTICLES which all align the directions of their spin axes to form a toroidal bundle of ring shaped MVP chains that are forced by the motion of the toroidal electromagnets to move in the directions their spin axes point. Being massless and electrically uncharged, these MVP's readily penetrate the dielectric layers of insulation that separate the electrically charged concentric toroidal plates of each toroidal tubular capacitor that occupies the core space of each of the toroidal electromagnets. The layers of dielectric insulation, however, are filled with the EVP particles that compose the electric fields that exist between the oppositely electrically charged concentric toroidal plates of each toroidal tubular capacitors. The EVP there form short chains between the plates that alternately reverse the direction of their spin axes as one moves from one concentric dielectric layer to another within a toroidal tubular capacitor.

I realized, in this advanced particle approach to anti-mass field generator operation, that something would only happen if a COLLISION took place between the MVP's and EVP's in the MOVING tori of an anti-mass field generator and that this would only be possible if there was RELATIVE motion between the two sets of fundamental particles. Since the MVP's are forced to move along with the rotating toroidal electromagnets, this requires that the EVP chains inside each toroidal tubular capacitor remain STATIONARY despite the revolving motion of the capacitor around the central occupant section of the UFO. This is only possible if the short EVP chains between the electrically charged toroidal plates of these capacitors resist moving along with them and undergo a kind of "slippage" that keeps them in the same locations that they had when the toroidal tubular capacitor's plates were initially electrically charged. This makes sense because, if these EVP chains were forced to move at right angles to the initial directions of alignment of their particles' spin axes, then ALL of the EVP's would precess and become MVP. If this happened, then the electric fields initially established in the dielectric insulator layers of each toroidal tubular capacitor would disappear and be replaced by magnetic fields! Since MOVING tubular capacitors demonstrate no loss of voltage which would indicate a conversion of electric fields to magnetic fields within their dielectric insulation, this EVP slippage phenomenon must be real.

So, because of RELATIVE motion between MVP's and EVP's within the MOVING tori of an anti-mass field generator, we can expect many collisions between these particles per second to be occurring inside of these tori. The frequency with which MVP / EVP collisions take place will depend upon several factors, all of which would be under the precise control of a UFO's pilot. For example, if the current flows through the metallic windings of the anti-mass field generator's toroidal electromagnets are increased AND their toroidal tubular capacitors are charged to a higher voltage, then this will increase the quantities of MVP's and EVP's at the cores of the device's revolving tori and we can then expect the number of collisions per second to increase. Alternatively, one can just increase the rate of revolution of the device's moving tori around the craft's central occupant section.

Each time that a MVP collides with an EVP particle in the core of an anti-mass field generator's moving tori, the more advanced form of the anti-mass field theory postulates that the two particles will fuse together and form a single particle. This composite particle will have a spin of 2 quantum spin units and its spin axis direction will then point at a right angle to BOTH of the directions of the spin axes of the MVP and EVP particles from which it was formed. This newly formed particle will not remain inside the anti-mass field generator's torus, but will, immediately after it is formed, exit the torus at the velocity of light. Once outside the torus, this new particle will join the TRILLIONS of other such particles that are issuing from other sections of the same torus and from other moving tori of the anti-mass field generator. We can imagine that as MVP's and EVP's collide and form these new composite particles that exit the craft's anti-mass field generator, the diminished supply of MVP's and EVP's within the tori are instantly replenished so that the creation and emission of their composite collision particles can remain continuous so long as the tori are kept in motion and their electromagnets and tubular capacitors are kept energized.

Outside the anti-mass field generator's moving tori, the huge numbers of newly formed composite particles will, like the EVP's and MVP's found in chain-like alignments of those fundamental particles, assemble themselves into long alignments whose individual particles are held together by the weak attractive force that arises when the "head" end of one such particle's spin axis comes into proximity with the "tail" end of another such particle's spin axis. In the advanced version of the anti-mass field theory the long chains of these composite particles are referred to as "streams" and they are imagined to be continuously radiating out from the moving tori of a UFO's anti-mass field generator at light velocity. These composite particle streams are equivalent to the "anti-mass field radiation" of the early anti-mass field theory.

In my collateral study of gravity theory that took place around 1990, I began to become aware of the concept that the force of gravitational attraction might be "mediated" by a theoretical particle called a "graviton". In advanced theoretical physics, gravitons are imagined to be "exchanged" between two masses and this action results in the masses moving together at an ever accelerating rate. Although theoretical calculations are not able to give us the size and shape of gravitons, it is believed that they move and light velocity and, MOST interestingly, have a spin of 2 quantum spin units! When I discovered this information concerning gravitons, it immediately became obvious to me that what I had been calling "mass field radiation" was, in fact, nothing more than gravitons being continuously emitted from the subatomic particles (i.e., electrons, protons, and neutrons) from which the atoms of objects are composed. I then imagined them as radiating out of objects in huge numbers and, like the previously described composite particles issuing from a UFO's anti-mass field generator, assembling themselves into long chain-like streams of particles which were held together by weak attractive forces between individual particles in a stream. One can imagine the graviton streams emanating from an object to be radially distributed around that object.

As in the earlier discussion of how mass field radiation gave rise to gravitational and inertial effects, the mutual deflection of the graviton streams from two separated masses would transmit forces back to their sources that would make them accelerate toward each other, while the bending of the emitted graviton streams from an ACCELERATING mass gave rise (again through forces transmitted back to the source mass) to inertial forces.

The early anti-mass field theory postulated that, when superimposed, mass field radiation and anti-mass field radiation of the SAME intensity will completely cancel each other out and the objects emitting them, such as a UFO and its crew, will then become completely massless. In similar fashion, advanced anti-mass field theory says that the graviton stream emission from the subatomic particles of a UFO and its crew will be cancelled out by the streams of particles leaving the UFO's anti-mass field generator. These latter particle streams, formed from MVP / EVP collisions inside the moving, energized tori of the craft's anti-mass field generator, are then, obviously, more properly referred to as "antigraviton streams". With these new concepts, the earlier anti-mass field theory easily made the transition from a FIELD based model for UFO propulsion and secondary effects to a PARTICLE based model that was far more satisfying to the image seeking mind.

The final matter of just how superimposed antigraviton and graviton streams issuing from a UFO and its crew can negate each other to render the craft and crew members massless is now readily explainable in the light of the advanced anti-mass field theory (which, perhaps, would be more properly termed the "anti-mass PARTICLE theory" although I see no problem in using the earlier name for the later version of the theory so long as the adjective "advanced" is used). We can imagine that as streams of antigravitons and gravitons mix in the region outside the UFO's hull, they will line up side by side with each other. Let us imagine further that the spin axes of the antigravitons all point AWAY from the cores of the UFO's moving anti-mass field generator tori while the gravitons issuing from the subatomic particles that compose the atoms of the craft and crew will all point TOWARD their sources. Thus, when the antigraviton and graviton streams align outside the UFO, INDIVIDUAL ADJACENT antigravitons and gravitons in the MOVING streams will have their spin axes pointing in OPPOSITE directions. They can then be said to be "spin paired" with each other. This is a particularly stable arrangement for ONE antigraviton and ONE graviton to be in and they prefer to change over to this configuration rather than to remain a part of their own respective particle streams.

We see from this that, once outside an active UFO, the mixed streams of antigravitons and gravitons actually break up into individual antigravitons and gravitons which then immediately bond to each other to form a continous "shower" of spin paired "couplets" (each of which contains ONE antigraviton attached to ONE graviton) that move away from the UFO at light velocity. Once the structural integrity of the craft's normally emitted graviton streams has been disrupted by the presence of the antigraviton streams issuing from its anti-mass field generator, those graviton STREAMS no longer exist and can no longer interact with the graviton streams issuing from a planet to give the UFO its normal weight or bend during vehicle acceleration to give the UFO its normal inertial properties. Without the gravitational and inertial properties given to the UFO and its crew by the existence of their external streams of gravitons, the UFO and its crew effectively become completely massless although all of the subatomic particles in the atoms of their structures is still physically present. We see from advanced anti-mass field theory that, when a UFO's anti-mass field generator (which is actually an "antigraviton generator") continuously produces antigravitons at a sufficient rate, it results in the craft and crew BEHAVING as though they were massless and emitting NO graviton streams at all! This effect, of course, will only persist as long as the UFO's anti-mass field generator remains in operation. As soon as the UFO's anti-mass field generator is deactivated, the craft will rapidly regain its gravitational and inertial properties as the craft's then uncancelled, normally emitted graviton streams radiate away from their subatomic particle sources inside the UFO at light velocity. Hopefully, this event will only take place when the craft is landed and not when it is airborne.

The above material provides the reader with some of the major concepts that emerged from the development of the "early" anti-mass field theory and its later, more advanced version. The actual theory, as developed in the pages of AURA is far more detailed (especially mathematically) then the above introductory treatment that is intended for the beginning student of ufology. In the actual theory, for example, it is possible to calculate the exact number of antigraviton streams that would issue from each square centimeter of a UFO's hull as a function of the physical parameters and operational status of the craft's anti-mass (or, antigraviton) generator. Aside from satisfactorily rationalizing ALL of the secondary effects associated with a UFO's propulsion system, the anti-mass field theory can also predict the manner in which the larger carriers of the smaller UFO's sighted in Earth's lower atmosphere, the so-called "motherships", can engage in interstellar travel by greatly exceeding the normally limiting velocity of light. The possibility that the anti-mass field theory could rationalize as many of the effects noted in UFO cases as it does and yet be erroneous would seem to me to be VERY highly improbable. Since the basic theory is now as advanced as it is, I am confident that it will one day soon allow earthly technology to duplicate the propulsion systems incorporated into the vehicles being operated by our extraterrestrial visitors. One can only imagine what profound benefits would come to humankind by way of the possession of such marvelous technology.

The reader wanting to explore the anti-mass field theory in greater depth may find the task somewhat daunting at this time. Only about a hundred copies of each of the twenty-four issues of AURA were ever printed. Of each issue's hundred copies, about a dozen or so were sent gratis to the then existing major civilian UFO research organizations and to a few of the top researchers in the field. From the remaining eighty or so copies of each issue available to the general students of ufology, perhaps now only a few dozen partial or complete sets of all of the issues still exist in the private libraries of the collectors of rare UFO literature. I myself retain two complete master sets which, if circumstances allow, I will someday try to have "published" via the new "print-on-demand" book technology. When that day arrives, this remarkable new approach to the UFO phenomenon will finally receive the wider distribution that it deserves...

(Note: this article completed August 5th, 2003)